into other markets. Kawaijuku, which despite the name, has traditionally focused on operating yobiko, is one example.

11 According to Japanese working group members, it is difficult to find hard data on this trend, but their impression is that the percentage of students taking this route, known as gen-eki, or active duty soldiers, is rising, but that the total number of such students has been stable recently because of the decline in Japan's 18-year-old population.

12 Sarah Lubman, “Summer school is no longer just for kids who fell behind,” The Wall Street Journal, August 8, 1995, p. B1.



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