support of company goals. The lifetime employment system that makes this possible does have a downside, however. There is a danger that the engineering culture of a company may become inbred, stagnant and resistant to change. In recent years, Japanese companies have expressed concern that the Japanese education system and social tradition do not sufficiently promote risk taking and originality among engineers. 22 U.S. and Japanese members agree that younger American engineers generally have more input into decision-making than engineers at a similar age do in Japan.


1 This section relies heavily on Pamela Atkinson, “Continuing Engineering Education in the U.S. and Japan: Exploring Best Practices,” May 1, 1994.

2 Management consulting firms and financial institutions are also becoming major employers of engineering graduates.

3 See Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers, (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995).

4 Motorola has established a goal for its employees of 40 hours per year of training. Ernest T. Smerdon, “Lifelong Learning for Engineers: Riding the Whirlwind,” The Bridge, Spring/Summer 1996.

5 Arden Bement, “An Industrial Perspective on Engineering Training and Education,” Remarks at the Academies-JSPS Meeting on Scientific and Technological Interdependence: New Challenges for the United States and Japan, 1991.

6 Quoted in Jeffrey Frey, “Japanese Engineering Culture: Dysfunctional?”

7 Smerdon, op. cit.

8 Atkinson, op. cit.

9 Carl Quintanilla, “DeVry Does Its Homework, Expects Degree of Success,” The Wall Street Journal, June 30, 1994.

10 National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators-1996 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996).

11 Sigmund Floyd, “Developing Chemical Engineers in Japan and the United States,” Chemtech, July 1989, p. 418.

12 Yasutaka Shimizu, “Report of the Committee on Refresher Education in the Engineering Fields,” Report Commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, 1993.

13 Monbusho Koto Kyoiku Kyoku (Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture Higher Education Bureau), “Rifuresshu kyoiku kanren data shu” (Data related to continuing education), March 1995.

14 Reported in Lola Okazaki-Ward, Management Education and Training in Japan (London: Graham & Trotman, 1993).

15 Kaneichiro Imai, “Recent Changes in Engineering Education in Japan,” Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education International Conference on Engineering Education and Practice, June 1996.

16 Ibid. By contrast, over 250,000 were Registered Architect and Building Engineers, and 350,000 were Registered Civil Construction and Management Engineers.

17 The Joint Task Force appreciates the work of Task Force member Mark Myers and Xerox engineer Kim Smith in developing this comparative material.

18 Mark Alpert, “The Care and Feeding of Engineers,” Fortune, September 21, 1992.

19 Sam Stern, “Education and Work in Japan: Implications for Policy,” Educational Policy, Vol. IX, No. 2, June 1995, p. 205.

20 Valery Law, “Graduating Engineer: Current Trends in the Entry Level Engineering Job Market,” Speech at the Annual Convocation of Professional Engineering Societies, May 16, 1994.

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