21 Paul Gehrmann, “Technical Vitality of Computer Professionals: A Competitive Advantage of the 90s,” American Programmer, January 1996, Vol. IX, No. 1.

22 Companies are taking a variety of approaches to address this problem. Some have reported success with utilizing foreign engineers as “project leaders” to introduce Japanese employees to new perspectives. See Nihon Seisansei Honbu (Japan Productivity Center), Minkan Kigyo ni okeru Kenkyusha/Gijutsusha no Ikusei oyobi Katsuyo ni kan suru Jitsujo Chosa (Survey on Actual Experience of Private Companies in Training and Utilizing Researchers and Engineers), report commissioned by the Agency for Industrial Science and Technology, March 1994.

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