The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture (Monbusho) along with Japanese schools, teachers, and parents, should redouble efforts to expand computer education and computer literacy for K-12 students. Universities should also aggressively utilize information technologies to disseminate admissions and other information to potential applicants.
Public and private universities, working with the Monbusho and the National Center for University Entrance Examinations, should continue efforts to simplify and improve the university entrance system with the goal of lessening negative impacts on K-12 education and promoting a richer undergraduate experience.
Japanese industry, universities, and government should promote expanded industry-university cooperation in engineering education through visiting lecture programs for corporate visitors at universities, internship programs for students at companies, continuing education initiatives, and training aimed at building Japan's global engineering skill base.
Japan should redouble efforts to improve graduate engineering education and research. In particular, the Monbusho and other research funding agencies should expand competitive funding of research.
Japanese universities and Monbusho should enhance the breadth of the Ph.D. degree in engineering by requiring recipients, particularly those taking the thesis dissertation route, to achieve broad mastery of the field in addition to original research achievement through the Ph.D. thesis.
Japanese universities should diversify their criteria for admissions, with the goal of encouraging industry to diversify the skill and experience profiles of new hires.
U.S. school systems, teachers, and parents should continue to learn from international models, including Japan, in improving K-12 mathematics and science education.
The United States, perhaps through the National Science Foundation, should increase opportunities for U.S. engineering students and younger professionals to gain international skills and expertise through language study, year abroad programs, research exchanges, and overseas internships.
The United States should make renewed public-private efforts to encourage increased investments in continuing education for engineers. Information technology can provide an important and effective tool.
The impact of the shifting funding trends for science and engineering students and for research should be examined.
The implications of the majority of engineering doctorates awarded to foreign citizens should be examined and better understood.
There should be a wider effort to educate engineering students, especially at top-tier research universities, about nonacademic and nonresearch career options.