Antioxidant strategies, 86-87

endogenous, 54

APACHE scoring system, 118

Apoptotic signals, originating from cellular organelles, 35

Apoptosis, 29-36, 65-66

complexity of system for, 36

cytoplasmic, 30

defined, 29-30

developmental, 30

plasmalemma receptor-induced, 30

Aptotic internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, 35

Arachidonate, oxidative metabolism of, 27

ARDS. See Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Arginine administration, 57

Ascorbic acid, 87

Assessment methodologies, 118

Asymmetric battlefields, 10

ATLS®. See Advanced Trauma Life Support® course

Auto-tyrosine phosphorylation, 36

B

Bacterial diseases, transmitted by transfusions, 41

Basic tactical casualty management plan, for Special Operations forces, 101

Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS) course, 102

Battlefield

bulk of solutions that must be transported onto, 51

expected condition of combatants on, 98

ideal solution for fluid resuscitation on, 98

limits of care on, 98-99, 102

resuscitation needs on, 98-99

salvageable casualties on, 9, 98

Battlefield injuries

compared with inner city, 15

modeling, 113

Bleeding. See Blood loss

Blood, citrate-preserved, 38

Blood banking, 38

Blood hemoglobin concentration. acute isovolemic reduction of, 80-81

Blood loss, 9-10, 100-101

handling on battlefield, 2

intraoperative, 29, 42

molecular and cellular responses to, 4

rates of, 113

Blood plasma, 14

drawbacks of, 60

Blood pressure, 113

Blood substitutes, 41-42.

See also Oxygen therapeutics

Blood transfusions, 38

alternatives to, 41-42

risks of, 41

"Boutique fluids," 79

Brain injury, 10

compression, 29

Brain ischemia, 33

free fatty acids released during. 27

reducing, 85

salvaging vulnerable neurons after, 34

Breathing and airway, 101, 104-106

C

Calpain-specific degradation fragments of spectrin, testing for, 43

Cancer and Leukemia Group B, 121

Cannon, Walter, 13-14

Capillary leak syndrome, 15

Cardiac myocytes, ischemic death of, 30

Cardiogenic shock, defined, 20-21

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 101

Cardiovascular collapse, 114

Carolina Rinse solution, 73-74

Caspases

mediating degradation of eIF4G, 33

prototypic, 32

receptor-mediated activation of, 30

Caspase-specific degradation fragments from actin, testing for, 43

Catalase, 82, 86

Catecholamines, 111-112

CD 18 cells, altering, 111

Cell hypoxia, 20



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