TABLE 3-1

Electrolyte Characteristics of Selected Resuscitation Fluids and Research Formulations

Fluid

Fluid Compartment

Osmolarity (mOsM/1)

pH

Na+ (meq/1)

Cl (meq/1)

K+ (meq/l)

Mg2+ (meq/l)

Ca2+ (meq/l)

Dextrose (g/l)

Buffer

Blooda

Normal serum

Intravascular

308

7.4

140

100

4

0

0

0-4

Protein, bicarbonate

Crystalloid

0 9% Saline

Extracellular

308

5.0

154

154

0

0

0

0

None

Lactated Ringer's solution

Extracellular

275

6.5

130

109

4

0

3

0

Lactate

Plasmalyte-A, pH 7.4

Extracellular

294

7.4

140

98

5

3

0

0

Acetate, gluconate

Normosol-R

Extracellular

295

55-7.0

140

98

5

3

0

0

Acetate, gluconate

7.0% Sahne

Extracellular

2,396

 

1,197

1,197

0

0

0

0

None

5% Dextrose m water

Extracellular

252

4.0

0

0

0

0

0

50

None

Colloid

Natural

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5% Albumin

Intravascular

309

6.4-7.4

130-160

130-160

 

0

0

 

Sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, or acetic acid

25% Albumin

Intravascular

312

6.4-7.4

130-160

130-160

 

0

0

 

Sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, or acetic acid

Frozen plasma

Intravascular

300

Variable

140

110

4

0

0

0-4

Protein, bicarbonate

Synthetic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6% Hetastarch

Intravascular

310

5.5

154

154

0

0

0

0

None

10% Pentastarch

Intravascular

326

5.0

154

154

0

0

0

0

None

Dextran 40

Intravascular

311

3.5-7.0

154

154

0

0

0

0

None

Dextran 70

Intravascular

310

3.0-7.0

154

154

0

0

0

0

None

Oxypolygelatin

Intravascular

200

7.4

155

100

0

0

1

0

None

Research Formulations

Carolina Rinseb

 

290-305

6.5

115

122

6

1.2

1.3

1.8

MOPS

Wisconsin Solutionc

Intravascular

320

7.4

25

0

125

5

0

0

Potassium phosphate

Veech's Fluid

 

294.3

7

136

106

4

1

2

5

Bicarbonate

a Included as a point of comparison

b Contains hydroxyethyl starch (50 grams/liter), allopurinol (1 millimolar [mM]), desferrioxamine (1 mM), glutathione (3 mM), fructose (10 mM), glucose (10 mM), adenosme (200 micromolar [µM]), nicardipine (2 µM), insulin (100 U/liter), 3-[N]-morpholinopropanesulfonic acid (20 mM), and glycine (5 mM)

c Contains hydroxyethyl starch (50 grams/liter), benisine (5 mM), glutathione (3 mM), allopurinol (1 mM), insulin, penicillin, and dexamethesone

SOURCE Adapted from Lemasters et al. (1995), Physicians' Desk Reference (1999), Rudloff and Kirby (1998), and Veech (1986)



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