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Il. Private Contributions 29

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National Academy of Sciences FY :1999T Private Contributions We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAB Treasurer's Report. Individuals Major Individual Contributors ($10,000 or More) Bruce Alberts Jack R. Anderson Mary Ellen Avery Roger J. Bulger William T. Golden Jerome H. Grossman William M. Haney III The Presidents' Circle Jane Hirsh M. Blakeman Ingle Robert L. James Ralph Landau Ralph S. O'Connor Richard L. Rosenthal* The Presidents' Circle is a support group of individuals from the private sector who advocate a greater awareness of science and technology in our society, and a better understanding of the work of the National Academy of Sciences, NationalAcademy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Bruce Alberts Jack R. Anderson Thomas D. Barrow Warren L. Batts Berkley Bedell Bruce D. Benson Diane Bernstein E. Milton Bevington William M. Bitting Richard A. Bloch Elkan R. Blout Richard W. Bowen Herbert W. Boyer E. Cabell Brand Malin Burnham Dan W. Burns Fletcher L. Byrom Louis W. Cabot George Campbell, Jr. David R. Challoner James McConnell Clark *Deceased Dollie Cole Charles Conrad, Jr. Richard L. Duchossois Charles W. Duncan, Jr. George C. Eads Robert J. Eaton James D. Ebert John Everets, Jr. James L. Ferguson Harold K. Forsen Robert E. Fuisz J. B. Fuqua Robert W. Galvin Barnett Grace Ronald L. Graham Paul Gray Cecil H. Green E. Andrews Grinstead III Jerome H. Grossman Norman Hackerman Jack Halpern William M. Haney III Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. William R. Hewlett Jane Hirsh Robert S. Ingersoll M. Blakeman Ingle Robert L. James Kenneth A. Jonsson Philip Jonsson Alice Kandell William F. Kieschnick William I. Koch Jill Howell Kramer John H. Krehbiel, Jr. Gerald Laubach Steve Lazarus James A. Lovell, Jr. Fred W. Lyons, Jr. Richard J. Mahoney Thomas J. Malone Robert H. Malott Thomas Mann Burton J. McMurtry Charles H. McTier Paula Kent Meehan Charles Miller G. William Miller George P. Mitchell Joe F. Moore David T. Morgenthaler Darla J. Mueller Dianne F. Neal Patricia Nettleship Guy W. Nichols Ralph S. O'Connor Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Simon Ostrach Jack S. Parker Charles M. Pigott Jody Potts Frank Press Robert A. Pritzker

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The Presidents' Circle (continued) Allen E. Puckett George Rathmann Charles W. Robinson Robert D. Rogers Neil R. Rolde Hinda G. Rosenthal F. Sherwood Rowland Jill Sackler Harvey S. Sadow Charles A. Sanders Collin W. Scarborough Sara Lee Schupf H. R. Shepherd Kenneth I. Shine Dorothy Simpson Joseph E. Slater George C. St. Laurent, Jr. Deborah Szekely Daniel M. Tellep Robert V. Waltemeyer The Elkan Blout Society of the National Academy of Sciences John Westwater Sheila E. Widnall Margaret S. Wilson Wm. A. Wulf Tadataka Yamada Alejandro Zaffaroni Elkan Blout Society members have made a legacy gift to the National Academy of Sciences to ensure the future vitality of the institution. Bruce and Betty Alberts H. H. and Eleanor Barschall Paul and Mildred Berg Elkan and Gail Blout Daniel Branton Ellis and Bettsy Cowling Lee J. and Helen Bower Cronbach Mildred and Gene Dresselhaus Ernest and Eva Eliel Emanuel and Hazel Epstein Katherine Esau* Richard L. and Lois Garwin Norman H. and Doris V. Giles Hermann and Eleanor Haus Martin and Barbara Larrabee G. Lewis and Ingrid B. Meyer Francis Daniels Moore Arno and Gretel Motulsky Oliver E. Nelson, Jr., and Gerda K. Nelson Frank and Billie Press Simon and Virginia Ramo Alexander and Jane Rich Frederic M. and Sarah W. Richards Charles M. Rick Richard L.* and Hinda Rosenthal Rhoda G. and Bernard G. Sarnat Paul and Cleo Schimmel Rudi and Sonja Schmid Robert L. Sinsheimer John Archibald Wheeler The TOM Society of the Institute of Medicine The IOM Society was established in 1997 to recognize exceptional giving by individual members and friends in support of the Institute's mission. Membership currently is reservedfor those who make contributions of $10,000 or more through present or planned gift arrangements. Roger G. and Ruth E. Bulger Jerome H. and Barbara Grossman Robert W. Miller Arno G. and Gretel Motulsky Mary O' Neil Mundinger Thomas K. and Lois P. Oliver *Deceased Gilbert S. Omenn and Martha A. Darling Henry W. and Frances R. Riecken Frederick C. and Alice N. Robbins Richard L.* and Hinda Rosenthal Rhoda G. and Bernard G. Sarnat Kenneth I. and Carolyn Shine ~ 1

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Individual Contributors ($l,000 to $9,999) Clarence R. Allen Harold Amos Wyatt W. Anderson Jett C. Arthur, Jr. Francisco J. Ayala Allen J. Bard Thomas D. Barrow Warren L. Batts Berkley Bedell Diane Bernstein Ernest Beutler Dennis M. Bier Lutz Birnbaumer Richard A. Bloch Elkan R. Blout J. Lyle Bootman Marjorie A. Bowman E. Cabell Brand Lewis M. Branscomb Lester Breslow Herbert C. Brown Malin Burnham Fletcher L. Byrom Federico Capasso Hampton L. Carson David R. Challoner Purnell W. Choppin Arthur D. Code D. Walter Cohen Douglas L. Coleman Stirling A. Colgate Harvey R. Colten Nicholas R. Cozzarelli Stephen H. Crandall Edward C. Creutz 32 James F. Crow Pedro M. Cuatrecasas William H. Danforth Worth B. Daniels, Jr. Annie Dicke R. G. Douglas, Jr. Charles W. Duncan, Jr. George C. Eads James D. Ebert W. T. Edmondson M. Judah Folkman George M. Foster, Jr. Carl Frieden Steven G. Gabbe Robert W. Galvin Barbara Gilchrest Michael and Mary Gimbrone David V. Goeddel Avram Goldstein Joseph L. Goldstein William E. Gordon Frances K. Graham Ronald L. Graham Jack Halpern Beatrix A. Hamburg David A. Hamburg Sarah B. Hrdy Alex Inkeles Michael E. Johns William F. Kieschnick David M. Kipnis Joseph H. Kite, Jr. C. Everett Koop Jill H. Kramer Konrad B. Krauskopf James S. Langer Gerald D. Laubach Irvin E. Lawrence, Jr. LaSalle D. Leffall, Jr. James S. Lieberman R. Duncan Luce Margaret E. Mahoney Robert H. Malott Thomas A. Mann Maclyn McCarty Roger O. McClellan Kenneth G. McKay Burton J. McMurtry Paula Kent Meehan Richard A. Meserve Charles Miller G. William Miller Ronald D. Miller Mario J. Molina David T. Morgenthaler Arno G. Motulsky William W. Mullins Craig G. Naylor Philip Needleman Guy W. Nichols Masayasu Nomura Peter O'Donnell Eugene P. Odum Stuart H. Orkin M. J. Osborn Morton B. Panish Charles M. Pigott Frank Press Robert A. Pritzker Allen E. Puckett Simon Ramo Helen M. Ranney John D. Roberts Paul G. Rogers A. K. Romney Frederick P. Rose William J. Rutter Harvey S. Sadow Charles A. Sanders Collin W. Scarborough Joseph E. Scherger Rudi Schmid Betty L. Seidmon H. R. Shepherd Kenneth I. Shine Eric M. Shooter Stephen M. Shortell Leon T. Silver Dorothy Simpson Emil L. Smith Julius Stern Takashi Sugimura Patrick Suppes Deborah Szekely Daniel M. Tellep Martha Vaughan Peter K. Vogt Bailus Walker, Jr. Malcolm S. Watts Sidney Weinhouse Irving L. Weissman John C. Westwater John C. Whitehead Jean D. Wilson Margaret S. Wilson Theodore E. Woodward Michael Zubkoff

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Individual Contributors ($100 to $999) Faye G. Abdellah Herbert L. Abrams Edward A. Adelberg John E. Affeldt Dyanne D. Affonso Bobby R. Alford Thomas P. Almy Joel J. Alpert Stuart H. Altman Theodore W. Anderson Philip S. Anton Susan Anton Raffle V. Aroian Samuel P. Asper Ruth Atherton Dennis A. Ausiello W. G. Austen Julius Axelrod Daniel L. Azarnoff Kathy R. Bailey Howard L. Bailit John R. Ball Robert L. Barchi Jeremiah A. Barondess George A. Bartholomew Eugene A. Bauer Stanley Baum William J. Baumol John C. Beck Paul B. Beeson Richard E. Behrman Leslie Z. Benet Sidney W. Benson Robert W. Berliner Robert M. Berne Kenneth I. Berns Lionel M. Bernstein William Bevan Peter J. Bickel J. Michael Bishop Robert L. Black Allison Blakely Robert J. Blendon Nicolaas Bloembergen Floyd E. Bloom *Deceased Baruch S. Blumberg Richard J. Bonnie Norman E. Borlaug Joseph F. Borzelleca F. R. Boyd, Jr. John S. Boyer Robert M. Boynton Edward N. Brandt, Jr. Jeane Breinig Robert L. Brent Jan L. Breslow W. F. Brinkman Lonnie R. Bristow Harriet B. Brittain J. R. Buchanan Maurice B. Burg Ann W. Burgess George E. Burket, Jr. Kim K. Burson Glenn W. Burton Ewald W. Busse John W. Bussman Robert N. Butler Harry P. Cain II Noah R. Calhoun Joseph A. Califano, Jr. David W. Canfield Charles C. Capen William B. Carey Arvid E. Carlsson Lynn P. Carmichael William T. Carpenter, Jr. Donald L. Caspar Webster K. Cavenee Britton Chance Evan Charney Merrill W. Chase Robert A. Chase John S. Chipman David S. Citron Thomas B. Clarkson John A. Clements Linda Hawes Clever Thomas W. Cline K. D. Clouser Leighton E. Cluff Jewel P. Cobb Michael D. Coe Jordan J. Cohen Morris F. Collen Linda C. Cork Gerald R. Crabtree Charles S. Craik Ralph Crawshaw Albert V. Crewe Francis Crick James H. Curry C. C. Cutler William H. Daughaday Ezra C. Davidson, Jr. David R. Davies George K. Davis James 0. Davis Karen Davis Marc Davis Igor B. Dawid Harry G. Day Johann Deisenhofer Roman W. DeSanctis Jane F. Desforges Don E. Detmer Thomas Detre David K. Detweiler Allen J. Dietrich David L. Dilcher Francis J. DiSalvo Frank J. Dixon Jack E. Dixon Thomas W. Doeppner, Jr. Paul M. Doty William DuBroff Michael B. Duke Rhetaugh G. Dumas Floyd Dunn Harriet P. Dustan David M. Eddy G. K. Eifler Leon Eisenberg Mickey S. Eisenberg Dennett K. Ela Neil J. Elgee Gertrude B. Elion* Judith L. Erb W. G. Ernst E. H. Estes, Jr. William K. Estes Ronald M. Evans Anna Everett Sandra M. Faber Daniel Facilla Claire M. Fagin Charles J. Fahey Harold J. Fallon Ugo Fano B. Farr Anthony S. Fauci Donald W. Fawcett Daniel D. Federman Gary Felsenfeld Clement A. Finch Harvey V. Fineberg A. A. Fischer Michael E. Fisher Kathleen B. Fitzhugh-Bell Charles D. Flagle Gregory Florant Kathleen M. Foley Neil Foley Loretta C. Ford Raymond E. Fornes Harold K. Forsen Henry W. Foster, Jr. T. K. Fowler Alan Frankel Hans Frauenfelder Emil Frei III Robert F. Furchgott Gregory J. Gajda Joseph G. Gall Eva M. Garroutte F. W. W. Gehring E. P. Geiduschek Donna M. Gerardi Neal C. Gillespie Harold S. Ginsberg

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Andrew M. Gleason Sarah B. Glickenhaus Morton F. Goldberg M. L. Goldberger Robert L. Goldenberg Lewis R. Goldfrank Lee Goldman Marvin R. Goldstein Frederick K. Goodwin Enoch Gordis Emil C. Gotschlich Robert Graham Larry A. Green Paul Greengard Tibor J. Greenwalt Robert B. Griffiths Robert C. Griggs Paul F. Griner Frederick Grose Ruth T. Gross Michael Grossman Melvin M. Grumbach Ernest Grunwald Keith Guinn Laurie M. Gunter Edward O. Haeltermann Ruth S. Hanft John V. Haralson Franklin M. Harold William P. Hauser Richard J. Havel Darnell Hawkins Elizabeth D. Hay Arthur F. Hebard Donald R. Helinski William R. Hencke Maureen M. Henderson Joseph L. Henry Ira Herskowitz Theodore M. Hesburgh Charlotte Heth Robin M. Hochstrasser John R. Hogness Philip S. Holzman Lee A. Honigberg Thomas F. Hornbein Donald F. Hornig *Deceased 34 Bonnie Hourigan Edgar M. Housepian Peter M. Howley William N. Hubbard, Jr. Vernon W. Hughes John R. Huizenga Barbara S. Hulka Sandral Hullett John R. Hummel Jerard Hurwitz Peter B. Hutt Sarah G. Hymowitz Richard O. Hynes Henry T. IIda Shinya Inoue Sigmund J. Jacobs Dean T. Jamison Lily Y. Jan Yuh N. Jan John F. Johansen Donald E. Johnson Priscilla Johnson Richard T. Johnson Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Robert J. Joynt David A. Julius Michael M. Kaback Jerome Kagan Candace Ann Kamm Michael M. Karl Mario M. Kashou Jerome P. Kassirer Michael Katz Samuel L. Katz Douglas Kellogg Arthur Kelman Hans J. Kende Charles F. Kennel William B. Kerr H. G. Khorana Margaret G. Kidwell Charles A. Kiesler Edwin D. Kilbourne Linda M. Kilroy Ivan R. King Seymour J. Klebanoff Luella Klein Richard M. Knapp William A. Kneller Franklin Knight Ernst Knobil Leon Knopoff Alfred G. Knudson, Jr. Jane E. Koehler Walter Kohn Teodozy J. Kolasa Michael A. Kriss Norman M. Kroll Brian A. Larkins Joseph Lamer Louis Lasagna The Lashkari Family Joyce C. Lashof Robert A. Laudise* Judith R. Lave Robert S. Lawrence Peter D. Lax Alexander Leaf Myron C. Ledbetter Aaron B. Lerner Myron M. Levine Joachim J. Li Tsung M. Lin Olga F. Linares Taly S. Lind Gwilym S. Lodwick II Irving M. London Jane Lubchenco Donald C. Malins Thomas E. Malone Thomas F. Malone Henri R. Manasse, Jr. Audrey F. Manley Robert W. Mann Vincent T. Marchesi Rudolph A. Marcus Jonathan Mark and Donna Sakson Robert R. Marshak Gail R. Martin Manuel Martinez-Maldonado Angela B. McBride Marie C. McCormick Hugh O. McDevitt . Bruce S. McEwen Christopher F. McKee Steven L. McKnight Blaine C. McKusick J. Alexander McMahon Sherman M. Mellinkoff George S. Menger-Hammond Richard A. Merrill Norman Metzger Linda B. Miller Louis H. Miller Mortimer Mishkin Susan G. Mize William C. Mobley Paul L. Modrich M. S. Montgomery Francis D. Moore Peter B. Moore Michelle Moritz Aron A. Moscona Sezaki K. Mtingwa Alicia H. Munnell Ferid Murad Meryl Natchez David G. Nathan Michael K. Nation Masatoshi Nei Oliver E. Nelson, Jr. Robert M. Nerem Norman D. Newell Quigg Newton Elena O. Nightingale Louis Nirenberg Paul A. Nutting Michael W. O' Mahoney J. E. Oldfield Gilbert S. Omenn Joel D. Oppenheim Gordon H. Orians June E. Osborn Hans J. Oser John W. Owen Herbert Pardes Robert G. Parr Robert E. Patricelli J. W. Perry Robert G. Petersdorf

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Marcia R. Phillips William H. Pickering Evan C. Picoult David Pilbeam Nora K. Piore Roy M. Pitkin Jeffrey L. Platt Mary L. Polan Leo J. Postman Harold A. Pratt Jacqueline K. Prince C. L. Prosser Kathy Purnell Dale Purves George J. Race Malcom Randall Calyampudi R. Rao George G. Reader Edward F. Redish Linda Reed Clifford E. Reid Howard Reiss Jonathan E. Rhoads Dorothy P. Rice Julius B. Richmond David L. Rimoin Hans Ris Frederick C. Robbins Doris E. Roberts Lee N. Robins Robert J. Rohn Walter A. Rosenblith Allan Rosenfield Mark R. Rosenzweig Richard S. Ross Russell Ross Janet D. Rowley Thomas C. Rozzell Edward Rubenstein Abraham M. Rudolph Clive Runnells Stephen J. Ryan David H. Sachs Vinod K. Sahney Earle W. Sapp Gordon H. Sato Charles H. Sawyer John A. Schellman Jurgen Schmandt Benno C. Schmidt Richard M. Schoen Robert D. Schrock III Doris R. Schwartz Seymour I. Schwartz William B. Schwartz John H. Schwarz Anne A. Scitovsky Sheldon J. Segal Laura F. Serpa Jeffrey P. Severinghaus William H. Sewell Ethel Shanas Claude E. Shannon Aaron J. Shatkin George F. Sheldon John F. Sherman Charles J. Sherr Henry R. Shinefield Philip Siekevitz George A. Silver Richard L. Simmons G. W. Skinner Clement B. Sledge Albert C. Smith Gloria R. Smith Michael Smith Harry E. Snyder Robert R. Sokal David H. Solomon Anne R. Somers Martin J. Spalding Robert D. Sparks William N. Spellacy Melford E. Spiro Allan C. Spradling Charles C. Sprague David B. Sprinson Nathan J. Stark Janet L. Stein Robert Steinberg John D. Stobo Edward C. Stone Rainer Storb Gilbert Stork James E. Strain Robert Straus Robert M. Stroud F. W. Studier Albert J. Stunkard Federico Subervi Harry Suhl William T. Sullivan Xin Sun Norman Sutin Morton N. Swartz John A. Swets Palmer W. Taylor Richard E. Taylor Susan S. Taylor Thomas N. Taylor Marc Tessier-Lavigne and Mary Hynes David H. Thomas George A. Thompson Shirley M. Tilghman Samuel W. Tinsley Irv Toplin Barbara B. Torrey Charles H. Townes William Trager Robert E. Tranquada James Travis Anne Treisman Gail Triner Endel Tulving James H. Tumlinson III Doris J. Turner Michael S. Turner Susan Turner-Lowe Thomas E. Twitchell Ronald D. Vale Harold E. Varmus Ellen S. Vitetta Jerry Volcy Joseph J. Volpe Salih J. Wakil Duard L. Walker Edward E. Wallach Cheves Walling Christopher T. Walsh Peter Walter Paul D. Ward Gail L. Warden Frank W. Warner Aaron 0. Wasserman R. Thomas Weimer Irwin M. Weinstein Herbert Weissbach Myrna M. Weissman S. I. Weissman Raymond P. White, Jr. M. Donald Whorton Benjamin Widom Herman S. Wigodsky Meir Wilchek Bryan Williams T. F. Williams Linda S. Wilson Bernhard Witkop Gerald N. Wogan Mei Lie Wong Dean E. Wooldridge H. E. Wright, Jr. Robert H. Wurtz James B. Wyngaarden Tadataka Yamada Asa G. Yancey, Sr. Adam Yarmolinsky Samuel S. Yen George A. Zentmyer Stephen A. Ziller, Jr. Bruno H. Zimm George D. Zuidema ~J

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Foundations California HealthCare Foundation Carnegie Corporation of New York The Annie E. Casey Foundation The Commonwealth Fund The Ford Foundation William H. Gates III Foundation William T. Grant Foundation The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation The W. Alton Jones Foundation Inc. Jonsson Foundation W. K. Kellogg Foundation Abbott Laboratories Amgen, Inc. Baxter Healthcare Corporation Best Foods BRTRC Technology Research Corporation CitiGroup Elf Aquitaine, Inc. Exxon Corporation Ferro Corporation Florida Clinical Practice Association Frito-Lay, Inc. Georgia-Pacific Corporation GlaxoWellcome Inc. The B. F. Goodrich Company GTE Corporation Hitachi, Ltd. Hoechst Marion Roussel International Business Machines Corporation Johnson & Johnson Kellogg Company Kraft Foods, Inc. Eli Lilly and Company 36 The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation The Marian and Speros Martel Foundation The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation The David and Lucille Packard Foundation The Rockefeller Foundation The Scherman Foundation, Inc. Sealark Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Foundation The Spencer Foundation Robert W. Woodruff Foundation, Inc. Corporations Thomas J. Lipton Company Lucent Technologies, Inc. Lutron Electronics Company, Inc. Merck & Company, Inc. Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. Mobil Corporation Monsanto Company Nabisco, Inc. NCR Corporation Praxair, Inc. The Procter & Gamble Company Purina Mills, Inc. Rhone Poulenc Rorer Ross Laboratories Sandia National Laboratory Society for Technical Communication Software Construction Company Stepan Company Taconic Farms, Inc. WMX Technologies, Inc. Wyeth-Ayerst Research

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Other Organizations American Academy of Nursing American Automobile Manufacturers Association American Cancer Society, Inc. American Concrete and Pavement Association American Medical Association American Zoo and Aquarium Association Association of American Railroads Brookhaven National Laboratory Electric Power Research Institute National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc. University of California, Oakland University of California, San Francisco University of Maine University of Minnesota Usability Professionals' Association The Academy Industry Program The Academy Industry Program (AIP) of the National Research Council brings together companies who are leaders in research and development to discuss emerging technological developments and their effects on industry and society. The AIP is sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine and it supports the work of the National Academies. Amgen, Inc. Amoco Corporation Becton Dickinson and Company Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Citicorp/Citibank N.A. Corning Inc. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Eastman Kodak Company Elf Aquitaine, Inc. Ford Motor Company General Electric Company B. F. Goodrich Company GTE Corporation Johnson & Johnson Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc. Monsanto Company Nissan Research and Development, Inc. Pfizer, Inc. Praxair, Inc. Procter & Gamble Company Texaco, Inc. TRW, Inc. Xerox Corporation ~7

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