E
Committee and Staff Biographies

Committee Biographies

Edward E. Penhoet, Ph.D. (Chair), is dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is also professor of health policy and administration and professor of molecular and cell biology. Prior to his appointment as dean in 1998, Dr. Penhoet was president and chief executive officer of Chiron Corporation in Emeryville, California. He also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1971 to 1998. Dr. Penhoet received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Washington in 1968 and was a National Institutes of Health (NIH) postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Penhoet is active in state and national service organizations including the California Healthcare Institute and the California Governor's Biotechnology Council. At the National Research Council, he serves on the Commission on Life Sciences, the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, and the Committee of Undergraduate Science Education. He was a member of the NIH Economic Roundtable on Biomedical Research and was on the board of the National Foundation for Biomedical Research. In 1994, he chaired the NIH Forum on Sponsored Research Agreements. He has also served as a member of the National Science Foundation National Visiting Committee. His awards include the Dreyfus Foundation Teacher-Scholar Award; the 1991 Distinguished Service Award from the University of California, Berkeley; and the Northern California Entrepreneur of the Year Award, which is presented by Ernst & Young, Inc. Magazine, and the Harvard Business School.

Naihua Duan, Ph.D., is with the Statistical Group at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. Dr. Duan holds a Ph.D. in statistics from Stanford University, an M.A. in mathematical statistics from Columbia University, and a B.S. in mathematics from National Taiwan University. His research interests



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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule E Committee and Staff Biographies Committee Biographies Edward E. Penhoet, Ph.D. (Chair), is dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is also professor of health policy and administration and professor of molecular and cell biology. Prior to his appointment as dean in 1998, Dr. Penhoet was president and chief executive officer of Chiron Corporation in Emeryville, California. He also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1971 to 1998. Dr. Penhoet received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Washington in 1968 and was a National Institutes of Health (NIH) postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Penhoet is active in state and national service organizations including the California Healthcare Institute and the California Governor's Biotechnology Council. At the National Research Council, he serves on the Commission on Life Sciences, the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists, and the Committee of Undergraduate Science Education. He was a member of the NIH Economic Roundtable on Biomedical Research and was on the board of the National Foundation for Biomedical Research. In 1994, he chaired the NIH Forum on Sponsored Research Agreements. He has also served as a member of the National Science Foundation National Visiting Committee. His awards include the Dreyfus Foundation Teacher-Scholar Award; the 1991 Distinguished Service Award from the University of California, Berkeley; and the Northern California Entrepreneur of the Year Award, which is presented by Ernst & Young, Inc. Magazine, and the Harvard Business School. Naihua Duan, Ph.D., is with the Statistical Group at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. Dr. Duan holds a Ph.D. in statistics from Stanford University, an M.A. in mathematical statistics from Columbia University, and a B.S. in mathematics from National Taiwan University. His research interests

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule include nonparametric and semiparametric regression methods, sample design, hierarchical models, health care policy, environmental exposure assessment, and intergenerational relationships, and he has published extensively in these areas. He is a member of the Service Research Review Committee and the Behavioral Sciences Workgroup of the National Advisory Mental Health Council at the National Institute of Mental Health. He is also serving as a consultant to the Institute of Medicine Committee on Measuring the Health Status of Persian Gulf Veterans and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Advances in Assessing Human Exposure to Airborne Pollutants. He is associate editor of the Journal of Exposure Assessment and Environmental Epidemiology and past associate editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association and Statistical Sinica. His honors include the Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Statistical Association Section on Statistics and the Environment in 1994, and he is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association (1992) and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (1991). Resigned from committee May 6, 1999 due to a potential conflict of interest. Nancy Dubler, LL.B., is director of the Division of Bioethics, Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, and professor of bioethics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She received her B.A. from Barnard College and her LL.B. from Harvard Law School. Ms. Dubler founded the Bioethics Consultation Service at Montefiore Medical Center in 1978 as a support for analysis of difficult cases presenting ethical issues in the health care setting. She lectures extensively and is the author of numerous articles and books on termination of care, home care and long-term care, geriatrics, prison and jail health care, and AIDS. She is co-director of the Certificate Program in Bioethics and the Medical Humanities, conducted jointly by Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine with the Hartford Institute of Geriatric Nursing at New York University. Her most recent books are Ethics On Call: Taking Charge of Life and Death Choices in Today's Health Care System, published by Vintage in 1993, and Mediating Bioethical Disputes, published by the United Hospital Fund in New York City in 1994. She consults often with federal agencies, national working groups, and bioethics centers and served as co-chair of the Bioethics Working Group at the National Health Care Reform Task Force. Charles K. Francis, M.D., is president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, a private academic institution located in south central Los Angeles. Prior to his present position, he was professor of clinical medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, and chair, Department of Medicine at the Harlem Hospital Center, New York, New York. Dr. Francis is a native of Newark, New Jersey. He is a graduate of Dartmouth College and received his medical degree from Jefferson Memorial College in Philadelphia. Following his internship at Philadelphia General Hospital, he served as

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule a general medical officer in the U.S. Air Force. He received his training in internal medicine and cardiology at the Boston City Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School. He was assistant professor of medicine at the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School (as it was then known) and the University of Southern California Medical School, and chief of cardiology at the Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital. Dr. Francis has served as assistant professor of medicine at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine and was chief of cardiology at the Mount Sinai Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut. He was associate professor of medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine and director of the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory at Yale-New Haven Hospital. In addition to his interest in health services and medical effectiveness research, he has contributed to literature in the areas of coronary artery disease in African Americans, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease, and access to medical care and the advancement of health care for minorities. Dr. Francis serves on the Board of Governors of the Warren Magnuson Clinical Center at NIH and served on the National Advisory Council of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) as co-chair of the NHLBI Working Group on Coronary Artery Disease in Blacks. Dr. Francis is chair of the Council on Clinical Cardiology of the American Heart Association, serves on the Board of Regents of the American College of Physicians and the Board of Trustees of the New York Academy of Medicine, and is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He is the recipient of the Louis B. Russell Memorial Award presented by the American Heart Association and the Daniel D. Savage, M.D., Memorial Award presented by the Association of Black Cardiologists. Robert Gibbons, Ph.D., holds joint appointments in the Department of Biometry, School of Public Health, and the Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He received his doctorate in statistics and psychometrics from the University of Chicago in 1981. In 1985 he received a Young Scientist Award from the Office of Naval Research, which funded his statistical research in the areas of the analysis of multivariate binary data and the analysis of longitudinal data. Dr. Gibbons has also received additional grant support from NIH and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. He currently has a Research Scientist Award from the National Institutes of Health that provides full-time support for statistical research. Applications of Dr. Gibbons' work are widespread in the general areas of mental health and environmental sciences. Dr. Gibbons has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific papers and two books. He is working on a book entitled Statistical Methods for Detection and Quantification of Environmental Contamination, which will be published by John Wiley & Sons. He served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on Halcion: An Assessment of Data Adequacy and Confidence.

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule Barbara Gill, R.N., M.N., has been a clinical nurse specialist with Abilene Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery since 1992, where her primary focus is on clinical assessment, care planning, case management, and education. Before that she was a fellow with the Annenberg Washington Program, where she served as primary investigator, adviser, and program facilitator in public policy studies of communications issues in critical medical decisions. Study topics included transplantation, patient self-determination, and professional education relating to health care public policy. As director of education for the Partnership for Organ Donation, she established and directed a multicity, multihospital education program. Ms. Gill received a master's of nursing from the University of Kansas in 1981. She holds a faculty appointment at the San Angelo State University and has taught at the School of Nursing at the University of Kansas and the School of Nursing at the University of Missouri. She has published widely in the areas of cardiac patient care and transplantation and serves on the editorial boards of Critical Care Nurse, Heart & Lung, and the Journal of Acute and Critical Care . Ms. Gill is a member of the Board of Directors of the Certification Corporation at the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, the Sigma Theta Tau National Nursing Honorary Society, and the American Nurses Association. Eva Guinan, M.D., is a pediatric oncologist and associate professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School, where she earned her M.D. in 1980. She is board certified in pediatrics with a subspecialty in pediatric hematology-oncology and serves as director of the Bone Marrow Transplant Service at Children's Hospital in Boston. Dr. Guinan's research interests, supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health, include acquired and congenital marrow failure syndromes, clinical application of hematopoietic factors, and novel immunologic approaches to alternative donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. She has published extensively in these areas and serves on the editorial board of Pediatric Transplantation. Dr. Guinan is a member of the American Society of Hematology, the Pediatric Oncology Group, the Society for Pediatric Research, and the American Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation. Maureen Henderson, M.D., D.P.H., is professor emeritus of epidemiology and medicine at the University of Washington. Dr. Henderson received both her M.B.B.S. and her D.P.H. degrees from the School of Medicine, University of Durham, England. She has served as professor of epidemiology and professor of medicine at the University of Washington; founder and head of the Cancer Prevention Research Program at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; director for community liaison at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; associate vice president for health sciences at the University of Washington; chair of the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine; and associate director of the Regional Medical Program, Epidemiology and Statistics Center, at the Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Henderson has been a member of numerous national and international

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule boards, including the National Cancer Advisory Board, and is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Suzanne T. Ildstad, M.D., is director of the Institute for Cellular Therapeutics and professor of surgery, Department of Surgery, at the University of Louisville. Dr. Ildstad received her medical degree from the Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota, followed by a residency in general surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. After completing a medical staff fellowship in immunology at the NIH, where she, with Dr. David Sachs, established the model for mixed hematopoietic stem cell chimerism, and a pediatric surgery-transplant surgery fellowship in Cincinnati, Dr. Ildstad joined the faculty at the University of Pittsburgh. She is the director of the Institute for Cellular Therapeutics and a professor in the Department of Surgery at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. Her research on mixed chimerism to induce tolerance to organ allografts and treat nonmalignant diseases such as sickle cell anemia and autoimmune disorders is currently being applied clinically in six Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Phase I trials. She is actively involved in numerous professional associations and has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors. Dr. Ildstad holds several patents related to her research in expanding bone marrow transplantation to treat nonmalignant diseases by optimizing the risk-benefit ratio through graft engineering and partial conditioning. She is the founding scientist of Chimeric Therapies, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on bone marrow graft engineering, and she serves on the board of directors of the company. Dr. Ildstad has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1997 and is serving as correspondent for the Committee on Human Rights. Patricia A. King, J.D., is professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. Ms. King received her B.A. from Wheaton College and her J.D. from Harvard Law School. She is the Carmack Waterhouse Professor of Law, Medicine, Ethics and Public Policy at Georgetown University Law Center. She is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Hygiene and Public Health, at Johns Hopkins University. She is the coauthor of Cases and Materials on Law, Science, and Medicine and an area editor of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics. She is a member of the American Law Institute and the Institute of Medicine, a fellow of the Hastings Center, and a senior research scholar at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics. Her work in the field of bioethics has included service as co-chair for policy of the Embryo Research Panel, National Institutes of Health; the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee; the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research; the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research; and the Ethics, Legal and Social Issues Working Group of the Human Genome Project. She is active with medical and health professional organizations and serves on the Board of Advisors of the

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule American Board of Internal Medicine and on the Institute of Medicine Council. She is also a member of the boards of the National Partnership for Women and Families and the Hospice Foundation. She is a trustee of Wheaton College. Her professional experience before joining the Georgetown University Law Center was primarily in the civil rights field; she was the deputy director of the Office of Civil Rights at the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and special assistant to the chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. She also served as a deputy assistant attorney general in the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. Manuel Martinez-Maldonado, M.D., is professor of medicine and vice provost for research at the Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland. He is a board-certified nephrologist. He received his training at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas. He has held professorships at Baylor College of Medicine, the University of Puerto Rico, and Emory School of Medicine. He has also taught at Harvard and Vanderbilt. He has served on numerous NIH committees, most recently on the Board of Scientific Counselors of the NHLBI. His research interests include prevention, detection, and treatment of renal diseases, the use of renal replacement technology in developing countries, the effect of nutrition on kidney function and disturbances in body fluid composition, and the effects of hypertension on kidney function. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1987 and most recently served on the Committee on Health and Human Rights. George E. McLain, M.D., is assistant chief of the Anesthesia Department and medical director of the Surgery Centers at Martin Memorial Hospital in Stuart, Florida. Dr. McLain received his medical degree from Northwestern University in 1973 and completed his internship and residency in anesthesia at Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force Base. He then served at Wilford Hall until 1980 as coordinator of resident education, primary cardiac anesthesiologist, and assistant chief of the Department of Anesthesia. Dr. McLain also completed a fellowship at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in 1997. He is board certified in anesthesiology and holds memberships in the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, the American Medical Association, the Florida Medical Association, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. David Meltzer, M.D., Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Medicine and an associated faculty member of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies and the Department of Economics at the University of Chicago. Dr. Meltzer received his M.D. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago in 1993. He completed his residency in internal medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. He graduated from Yale University in 1986 with distinction in economics and in molecular biophysics and biochemistry. Dr. Meltzer serves on the faculty of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, the Graduate Program in Health Administration and Policy, the Popu

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule lation Research Center, and the Center on Aging. His research explores problems in health economics and public policy. His recent work has focused on the theoretical foundations of medical cost-effectiveness analysis, including issues such as accounting for future costs due to the extension of life and the empirical validity of quality-of-life assessment, which he has examined in the context of diabetes and prostate cancer. Other work concerns the effects of physician experience and of managed care on the cost and quality of patient care and the educational process in teaching hospitals, the role of mortality decline in the economic growth and demographic transition of developing countries, and the effects of FDA regulation on innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. Dr. Meltzer is the recipient of numerous awards, including an NIH Medical Scientist Training Program Fellowship, a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship in Economics, the University of Chicago Searle Fellowship, the Lee Lusted Prize and Outstanding Paper by a Young Investigator Award from the Society for Medical Decision Making, the Health Care Research Award of the National Institute for Health Care Management, the Robert Wood Johnson Generalist Physician Award, and an Olin Foundation Faculty Fellowship. He is also a faculty research fellow for the National Bureau of Economic Research and recently served on a panel that examined the future of Medicare for the National Academy of Social Insurance. Joseph E. Murray, M.D., is professor of surgery, emeritus, at Harvard Medical School. He is a pioneer in the transplantation of organs. After extensive laboratory studies at Harvard Medical School's Surgical Research Laboratory, Dr. Murray carried out the first successful human kidney transplantation between identical twins in 1954. He also achieved the first successful kidney transplant between fraternal twins in 1959, and performed the first successful allotransplantation under immunosuppressive chemotherapy, the model for organ transplantation. Dr. Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 for his pioneering work in solid organ transplantation. Dr. Murray is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Previously he was a member of the National Research Council Office on Public Understanding of Science Advisory Committee and committees of the Commission on Life Sciences. Dr. Murray's expertise and research interests are general surgery, plastic surgery, and transplantation surgery. Dorothy Nelkin holds a university professorship at New York University, where she is professor of sociology and affiliated professor in the School of Law. She was formerly at Cornell University. Her research focuses on controversial areas of science, technology, and medicine as a means to understand their social and political implications and the relationship of science to the public. This work includes studies of antiscience movements, and the impact of technology, science policy, and media communications on science and risk. She has recently written a book on the uses of the diagnostic test emerging from research in genetics and on hereditary themes in popular culture. She is pres-

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule ently working on a study of the value of body tissue in the biotechnology age. Ms. Nelkin is a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine. She has served on the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS. She has been a Guggenheim fellow and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. Mitchell W. Spellman, M.D., Ph.D., is director of Academic Alliances and International Exchange Programs at Harvard Medical International. Dr. Spellman is also professor of surgery, emeritus, and dean for medical services, emeritus, at Harvard Medical School and is honorary senior surgeon at Beth Israel Hospital. He was formerly professor of surgery at Charles R. Drew Post-graduate Medical School and professor of surgery at the School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles. He received his M.D. from Howard University and his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Dr. Spellman has served on numerous boards of directors, including those of the National Medical Association Foundation, the Duke University Medical Center, and the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, and on the Board of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation. Some of his memberships in professional and academic societies include the American Surgical Association, American College of Cardiology, American College of Surgeons, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. In recognition of his contributions to the field, Dr. Spellman has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors. IOM Project Staff Andrew Pope, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine and served as study director for the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Policy study. With expertise in physiology, toxicology, and epidemiology, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope's previous research activities focused on the biochemical, neuroendocrine, and reproductive effects of various environmental substances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed and edited numerous reports on environmental and occupational issues; topics include injury control, disability prevention, biologic markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the inclusion of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed the fast-track study on NIH priority-setting processes, and a review of fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties. Christine Domzal, Ph.D., was a senior project officer in the IOM's Division of Health Sciences Policy. She received her doctorate in applied social psychology from George Washington University, with an emphasis in research methods,

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule program evaluation, and data analysis. With prior experience in a consulting firm, Dr. Domzal has directed projects under management support contracts with federal clients including the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Defense (Health Affairs). Her projects included analysis of data from a longitudinal study of Army officer careers, long-range and strategic planning, quality management in the military health system, and disability statistics. She has also worked as a research analyst at the General Accounting Office and the National Science Foundation and as a legislative assistant in the U.S. Senate. Dr. Domzal is a member of the American Evaluation Association and the Washington Statistical Society. She resigned from the IOM staff on May 7, 1999. Sarah Pitluck, M.S., is a research assistant for the Organ Procurement and Transplantation study. She is also a research assistant for the IOM Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. She received her undergraduate degree in political science at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, before completing her master's degree in public policy and public administration at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Sarah's master's thesis addresses the sources of divergent policies toward screening for prostate cancer in the United States and United Kingdom. Alden Chang is a project assistant in the Division of Health Sciences Policy. He has been with the IOM since February 1999 and is also working on the Committee to Assess Occupational Safety and Health Training Needs. Alden earned his bachelor's degree in International Relations from The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Glen Shapiro was a research assistant in the Division of Health Sciences Policy for the Organ Procurement and Transplantation study. He also provided support for the Committee on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties and the Committee on Environmental Justice. Glen earned his bachelor's degree in Russian language and literature at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut. He resigned from the IOM to attend medical school on June 4, 1999. Stephanie Smith was a research associate in the IOM Division of Health Sciences Policy, working for the Committee on Organ Procurement and Transplantation Policy. She returned to IOM while pursuing her M.S. in health-fitness management at American University and performing independent research on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. While previously working at the IOM for three years, she supported the Board on International Health and the Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Her undergraduate degree is in international relations and Spanish. She resigned from the IOM staff on June 1, 1999.

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Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule Thelma L. Cox is a project assistant in the Division of Health Sciences Policy. During her seven years at the Institute of Medicine (IOM), she has also provided assistance to the Division of Health Care Services and the Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Ms. Cox has worked on several IOM reports, including Designing a Strategy for Quality Review and Assurance in Medicare; Evaluating the Artificial Heart Program of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment; Legal and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies; and Review of the Fialuridine (FIAU/FIAC) Clinical Trials. She has received the National Research Council Recognition Award and the IOM Staff Achievement Award. Carlos Gabriel is the financial associate for the Division of Health Sciences Policy. Carlos graduated from California State University at Los Angeles with a degree in Mathematics and a minor in Business. He briefly taught mathematics at the high school level and has many years of experience in the field of finance and analysis, having worked in this capacity for a large real estate development company, banks, insurance companies, and in the audit department of Price Waterhouse prior to joining the Academy. He has been working for The National Academies as a financial associate since 1989.