Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 41
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources APPENDIX B Participant Biographies CONFERENCE CHAIRMAN David Galas is Chief Academic Officer of the Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences. Dr. Galas recently served as president and chief scientific officer of Seattle-based Chiroscience R&D, Inc., a company that adopted an integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to drug discovery. Prior to his involvement in the business world, Dr. Galas served as director for Health and Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy 's Office of Energy Research, where he headed up the Human Genome Project from 1990 to 1993. DISTINGUISHED SPEAKERS Bruce Alberts is President of the National Academy of Sciences. Born in 1938 in Chicago, Illinois, Alberts graduated from Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a degree in biochemical sciences. He earned a doctorate from Harvard University in 1965. He joined the faculty of Princeton University in 1966 and after ten years was appointed professor and vice chair of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). In 1980, he was awarded the honor of an American Cancer Society Lifetime Research Professorship. In 1985, he was named chair of the UCSF Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Dr. Alberts is a principal
OCR for page 42
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources author of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, considered the leading textbook of its kind and used widely in U.S. colleges and universities. His most recent text, Essential Cell Biology (1997), is intended to approach this subject matter for a wider audience. Frederick Anderson is a Partner with Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft and former Dean of the law school at American University. His practice involves science, the environment, and natural resources including health risk assessment and management, and issues regarding the use of genetic information and research. He is a member of the D.C. and U.S. Supreme Court bars. He is a member of the NRC's Commission on Life Sciences. Helen Berman, a structural biologist, is a Professor II in the Department of Chemistry and a member of the Waksman Institute at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Dr. Berman is the Director Designate of the Protein Data Bank and is head of the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics. Dr. Berman founded and is currently the director of the Nucleic Acid Database Project, and has been a leader in the national and international mmCIF effort. She is the chair of the International Union of Crystallography Database Committee. Dr. Berman was President of the American Crystallographic Association (ACA) and has served on numerous advisory boards. C. Thomas Caskey is Senior Vice President, Human Genetics & Vaccines Discovery at Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania. He is Trustee and President, The Merck Genome Research Institute, Inc.; Adjunct Professor in the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Medicine, Biochemistry and Cell Biology at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. His many honors include: Presidency of the Human Genome Organization; Member of the National Academy of Sciences; Doctor of Science Honorary Degree, The University of South Carolina; The Giovanni Lorenzini Foundation Prize for Basic Biomedical Research; Past President of the American Society of Human Genetics; Member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences; Member of the Department of Energy Advisory Committee on Mapping the Human Genome. His research interests include: Disease gene discovery, DNA-based diagnosis and gene therapy. Mary E. Clutter is Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Clutter came to NSF from the Department of Biology at Yale University to be Program Director of Development Biology. Dr. Clutter is the U.S. Chair of the U.S.–European Commission Task Force on Biotechnology, Chair of the Biotechnology Subcommittee of the Committee on Science of the
OCR for page 43
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) and a member of the NSTC Committee on Science's Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes. Raymond H. Cypess is President and CEO of ATCC (American Type Culture Collection), in Manassas, Virginia. He holds a D.V.M. from the University of Illinois and a Ph.D. in parasitology from the University of North Carolina. Dr. Cypess came to ATCC from the University of Tennessee, Memphis, in 1993. He was Dean of the College of Graduate Health Sciences, as well as Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Comparative Medicine, and Vice Provost for Research and Research Training. He has been an Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Microbiology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, and Professor and Chairman at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine. In the course of his extensive professional career, Dr. Cypess participated on NIAID scientific review boards and various NIH Study Sections and served on several editorial boards. He is the author of more than 75 chapters, reviews, and journal articles, a fellow in the Infectious Disease Society, a member of the American Epidemiology Society, and principal investigator on numerous grants, contracts, and academic-industrial initiatives. Maria C. Freire is the Director of the Office of Technology Transfer (OTT) for the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Prior to her appointment at the NIH, Dr. Freire established and headed the Office of Technology Development at the University of Maryland at Baltimore and at the University of Maryland Baltimore County to provide for the effective transfer of technology from academia to industry. Sarah L. Friedman is Special Assistant to the Director of the National Institute for Child Health and Development. She earned her M.A. in Educational Psychology from Cornell University in 1971 and her Ph.D. in Developmental and Experimental Psychology in 1975 from The George Washington University. While employed by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institute of Education (NIE) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), she has published scientific papers and edited books addressing (a) the effects of preterm birth on cognitive, educational and social development of children; (b) the interface of brain, cognition and education; (c) the development of planning skills, and (d) environmental influences on psychological development. Since 1989 she has also served as the NICHD scientific coordinator and one of the investigators of a collaborative longitudinal research project on the development of social, emotional, cognitive, linguistic and health development of children from birth through first grade.
OCR for page 44
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources Steve H. Holtzman is Chief Business Officer of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has responsibility in the areas of business development, mergers and acquisitions, licensing, intellectual property, corporate law and corporate communications. Mr. Holtzman was formerly President of DNX Biotherapeutics, Inc. and was instrumental in developing DNX from a start-up to a publicly traded company. He currently serves as Co-chair of the Biotechnology Industry Organization's Bioethics Committee and was appointed by President Clinton in 1996 to the National Bioethics Advisory Committee. He is also a member of the NIH Working Group on Research Tools. Tony E. Hugli is a Professor in the Department of Immunology, at the Scripps Research Institute and an Adjunct Member of the Institute for Bio-Medical Engineering at UCSD. Included among his many awards and honors is the Distinguished Alumnus Award from Otterbein College. Dr. Hugli was co-founding associate editor of Protein Science from 1991-1995 and is currently editor of Immunopharmacology. Lynn Jorde is Professor and Associate Chairman of the Department of Human Genetics at the University of Utah School of Medicine. His laboratory is actively involved in studies of human genetic variation and has collected DNA samples from populations in India, Finland, and Africa. His laboratory also conducts studies of the genetic basis of human limb malformations. Dr. Jorde has served on several advisory panels for the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. He is the lead author of Medical Genetics, a textbook that is widely used in medical schools in the United States and abroad. Harry Klee is Eminent Scholar and Professor at the University of Florida in the Horticultural Sciences Department. His research involves the manipulation of plant hormone synthesis and perception with the goal of improving crop plants. He has served on several panels and advisory committees concerning plant genetics and molecular biology, including the Joint FAO/IAEA Advisory Committee on application of agricultural biotechnology to the third world. He holds two patents related to plant biotechnology. Leonard Krishtalka is Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, at the University of Virginia. Krishtalka grew up in Montreal, Canada, where he attended McGill University and later received his Bachelor (1969) and Master (1971) of Science degrees from The University of Alberta, Edmonton. Krishtalka completed his doctoral studies in paleontology and evolutionary biology at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, and Texas Tech University, Lubbock (Ph.D., 1975). In 1989, he became Assistant Director for Science at the Carnegie Museum. In 1992, Krishtalka took a two-year leave from the Carnegie Museum to serve as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., where he directed two research programs:
OCR for page 45
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources worldwide surveys of biodiversity; and biodiversity collections housed in national museums. Krishtalka left Carnegie Museum for The University of Kansas, Lawrence to become the Director of the Natural History Museum and a Professor of Systematics and Ecology. Krishtalka's research involves the origin and early evolution of the modern groups of mammals and he has been involved in the search for human origins with Richard Leakey's research team in Kenya and an international expedition to Ethiopia. Most recently, Krishtalka has worked with the museum community to use technology and information systems to bring the wealth of museum-based biodiversity data to science and society. In 1996 he helped form US-OBI, the U.S. Organization for Biodiversity Information, and is working with NAFTA's Commission on Environmental Cooperation, which is attempting to implement a North American Biodiversity Network. Cletus P. Kurtzman is Research Leader of the Microbial Properties Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Peoria, IL. Dr. Kurtzman's responsibilities include directing a research program on molecular systematics of agriculturally and industrially important microorganisms, and enhancing the ARS Culture Collection (NRRL), an International Depositary Authority under the Budapest Treaty, which maintains 80,000 microbial strains (http://nrrl.ncaur.usda.gov). His personal research is on molecular systematics of yeasts. Joan S. Leonard is Vice President and General Counsel for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. She, along with her staff of six attorneys, is responsible for the whole range of legal matters affecting the Institute, including the implementation of its intellectual property policies as they affect its more than 320 investigators. Ms. Leonard served as a member of the Working Group on Research Tools, which was convened by the Advisory Committee to the Director of the NIH. The Working Group, which was charged with inquiring into the problems faced by NIH grantees in gaining access to research tools and identifying and assessing possible NIH responses, issued its report in June, 1998. Barbara J. Mazur is currently the Director for Biotechnology Research in the DuPont Agricultural Products Enterprise. In this position she has responsibility for research directed towards developing novel grain quality products and for developing crop protection chemicals and products. The research includes programs with DuPont's alliance partner, Pioneer Hybrid International, as well as with Protein Technologies International and the Cereals Innovation Centre, members of the Agricultural Enterprise. Dr. Mazur has led the agricultural biotechnology program in DuPont for the past ten years. Prior to that she led a
OCR for page 46
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources research program that focussed on identifying genes conferring resistance to the sulfonlyurea class of herbicides, and creating herbicide resistance transgenic crop species with those genes. James S. Miller is Head of the Applied Research Department at the Missouri Botanical Garden and coordinates a series of programs that explore possibilities for economic development of biological resources. In the past decade, more than 30,000 plant samples have been collected and screened for pharmaceutical or agricultural activity at the National Cancer Institute, several pharmaceutical or agricultural companies, and a number of university laboratories. In addition to being one of the most active programs promoting bioprospecting, the Garden has also been involved in developing the appropriate ethical and legal framework for operation of these activities. The Garden was one of the first institutions to sign an international agreement insuring that profits would be shared equitably with the source country if a products was developed and also one of the first to develop an institutional policy guiding research interactions with commercial programs. Vladek Minor is an Associate Professor in the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics at the University of Virginia. Previously he was a Research Scientist in the Department of Biological Sciences at Purdue University. He received his Ph.D. in Solid State Physics at the University of Warsaw, Poland in 1978 and was a Visiting Professor at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, where he received the ASEA award for research work on the microcrystallization of metallic glasses. Since 1991 his research has focused on determining the crystallographic structure of macromolecules. He is a co-developer of the software program DENZO, used to process x-ray diffraction data. O.J. Reichman is Director of the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He currently serves as Editor of Ecological Applications; as President of the American Society of Mammalogists; on the Advisory Board for the journal Ecosystems; as Editor of Special Features for the Journal of Mammalogy; and on the Board of Trustees for BIOSIS Corporation. Dr. Reichman 's current research involves the interactions between plants and animals in restored communities. Christopher Scott is currently the Director of Research Development at Stanford University Medical Center and Executive Director of ACCESS, a clinical trials program at the School of Medicine. He is also the Associate Director of the Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine and has held appointments as Director of Corporate Initiatives and in the Dean's office as Special Counsel in industrial relations and program development. He is the Administrative Director of the Program in Molecular and Genetic Medicine; a
OCR for page 47
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources multidisciplinary program designed to translate basic science discoveries to clinical application. He is the co-creator of Spectrum, a technology and information transfer program created to bring the biomedical industry in closer alignment with Stanford's academic research. His work interests and expertise center on new revenue strategies for clinical and basic biomedicine and the development of novel multidisciplinary research centers. His work career has spanned private industry and biotechnology. Michael Snyder is Professor and Chair of the Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale, where he joined the faculty in 1986. His laboratory studies cell structure and division in yeast and was the first to carry out largescale functional genomics, characterizing the many genes of the yeast genome. Dennis K. Stone is Vice President for Technology Development, Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine, Biochemistry, and Physiology, and NCH Chair in Molecular Transport at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Dr. Stone maintains an active laboratory that is focused on the structure and function of vacuolar type proton translocating ATPases. Before assuming his current position, Dr. Stone served as Associate Dean for Medical Student Research, Director for Internal Medicine Clerkship, and Director of the Graduate Program in Physiology. Dr. Stone is a former Searle Scholar and Established Investigator of the American Heart Association. J. Richard Udry, Kenan Professor of Maternal and Child Health and Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, received his Ph.D. from the University of Southern California in 1960, and joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1965. His special interest is integrating biological and social science models of behavior. His main current activity is directing the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. J. Craig Venter is the President of Celera Genomics and Chairman of the Board of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR). At Celera, Dr. Venter is leading the effort to sequence the human genome by 2001. During his career focused in genomics and biomedical research, Dr. Venter has revolutionized the methods by which genomes are sequenced and analyzed. He has pioneered the use of automated gene sequencers and developed the expressed sequence tag (EST) technique for identifying expressed genes. With his lab at TIGR, Dr. Venter was the first to sequence the genome of an entire living organism. Candace Voelker is Associate Director of The Office of Technology Transfer (OTT), University of California, Office of the President, which encompasses all the University of California campuses and includes Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley
OCR for page 48
FINDING THE PATH: Issues of Access to Research Resources National Laboratory. She has spent 14 years in licensing intellectual property and five years as a patent advisor at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Her current responsibilities include managing the patenting and licensing staff at the University of California, OTT, that is responsible for the invention portfolios in the fields of chemistry, agriculture, and some biotechnology. Tracy D. Wilkins is Director of the Fralin Biotechnology Center at Virginia Tech and holds the J.B. Stoobant's Professorship in Agricultural Biotechnology. His research interests are varied but primarily concern diseases of the intestine and, more recently, development of nasal and oral vaccines. In 1990, he co-founded a private company, TechLab, which develops and manufactures immunological tests to diagnose intestinal disease; and in 1992, he founded TransPharm, Inc. to produce transgenic farm animals that would contain human genes as part of their chromosomes and produce human proteins in their milk. He has been awarded eight United States patents on his work. Rod A. Wing is Associate Professor and Coker Endowed Chair of Plant Molecular Genetics, in the Departments of Agronomy and Biological Sciences at Clemson University. He received his Ph.D. in 1987 at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Wing is also the Director of the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI), which focuses on research, service and teaching in genomics. The research component of the CUGI is presently focused on 1) the development of frameworks to sequence the genomes of rice and rice blast; 2) the development of integrated physical maps between rice, sorghum and corn; and 3) the development and analysis of 50,000 cotton fiber and 50,000 barley ESTs. The service component of the CUGI is to provide affordable access to plant and fungal BAC libraries and related technologies through a five-year NSF funded BAC Resource Center. The Center presently produces, maintains and distributes the majority of BAC libraries used in agriculture today. The training component of the Institute includes both undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral and visiting scientists training and education in genomics, primarily in the areas of BAC technologies, physical mapping, DNA sequencing and Bioinformatics.
Representative terms from entire chapter: