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Transnational Organized Crime Summary of a Workshop Committee on Law and Justice Peter Reuter and Carol Petrie, Eclitors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- cine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autono- mous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given tO the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and educa- tion. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of fur- thering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 98-IJ-CX-0019 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Justice. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06575-5 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitu- tion Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE 1998-1999 CHARLES WELLFORD (Chair9, Center for Applied Policy Studies and the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland JOAN PETERSILIA (Vice Chair), School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine RUTH M. DAVIS, The Pymatuning Group, Alexandria, VA DARNELL F. HAWKINS, African American Studies, University of Illinois at Chicago PHILLIP B. HEYMANN, Law School and John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University CANDACE KRUTTSCHNITT, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota MARK LIPSEY, Department of Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University COLIN LOFTIN, School of Criminal Justice, State University of New York at Albany JOHN MONAHAN, School of Law, University of Virginia DANIEL S. NAGIN, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University PETER REUTER, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland WESLEY SKOGAN, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University KATE STITH, School of Law, Yale University MICHAEL TONRY, School of Law, University of Minnesota CATHY SPATZ WIDOM, Department of Criminal Justice & Psychology, State University of New York at Albany CAROL PETRIE, Studly Director MELISSA BAMBA, Research Associate KAREN AUTREY, Senior Project Assistant . . .

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WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS Peter Renter (Workshop Chair9, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland Norman Bailey, Potomac Foundation, Washington, DC lames Beachell, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Vienna, VA Margaret Beare, Nathanson Center for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University leffrey Berman, National Strategy Information Center, Washington, DC lack Blum, Lobel, Novins, and Lamont, Washington, DC R. William Burnham, Center for Criminological Research, Oxford University Mike DeFeo, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC Edgar Feige, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison lames Finckenauer, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice Sally Hillsman, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice Eric leffries, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice Carol Kalish, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice Richard Langhorn, Center for Global Change & Governance, Rutgers University Rensselear Lee, Global Advisory Services, Alexandria, VA Frederick Martens, Claridge Casino Hotel, Atlantic City, Nit Phyllis McDonald, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice William McDonald, Department of Sociology and Institute of Criminal Law, Georgetown University Samuel McQuade, Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council Faith Mitchell, Division on Social and Economic Studies, National Research Council Lois Mock, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice Ethan Nadelmann, Lindesmith Center, New York, NY Tom Naylor, Department of Economics, McGill University Nikos Passas, Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University Raphael Pert, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC Carol Petrie, Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council Mark Sakaley, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice v

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Kip Schlegel, Department of Criminal Justice, Indiana University, Bloomington Daniel Schneider, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC Louise Shelley, Center for the Study of Transnational Organized Crime and Corruption, American University John Sopko, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC Sherman Teichman, Experimental College, Tufts University Kimberley Thachuk, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University Yonette Thomas, Committee on Law and Justice, National Research Council Francisco Thoumi, Independent Researcher, Arlington, VA Jeremy Travis, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice Elin Waring, Department of Sociology & Social Work, Lehman College Phil Williams, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh Sidney Jay Zabludoff, Independent Consultant, Washington, DC Edwin Zedlewski, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice v'

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Contents PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTIONS Complexities of Definition, 7 Describing Transnational Organized Crime, 12 Conclusion, 20 MEASUREMENT Illegal Drugs, 22 Other Markets, 26 Conclusion, 27 4 ENFORCEMENT Need for Cooperative Relationships, 29 Italian-American Working Group, 30 Russia, 32 Barriers to Cooperation, 33 Dominance of Federal Agencies, 34 Problems for Local Law Enforcement, 35 Current Ad Hoc Arrangements, 37 Conclusion, 38 VI' 1X 1 7 22 28

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vIll RESEARCH AGENDA Problem Identification, 41 Data Sources, 46 Topics, 48 Research Methods, 51 Implementation Strategy, 53 REFERENCES APPENDIX: WORKSHOP AGENDA CONTENTS 40 54 61

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Preface rime is becoming increasingly international. With the exception of the high homicide rates that are unique to the United States, ~ the rates for many crimes in the developed countries of the West are quite similar and appear, at least in recent years, to rise and fall in tandem. The integration of the world's economic systems and institutions; the easing of barriers to trade, travel, and migration; and the technology that supports global communications have all increased criminal opportu- nities, especially across national borders, for individuals and criminal orga- nizations worldwide. In recent years, the United States and other countries have devoted significant resources to the investigation and control of what has come to be called transnational crime. The idea for the workshop described in this report arose out of a dis- cussion with the research staff of the National Institute of Justice (NIT) as the agency was developing plans for a new division, the Center for Interna- tional Crime Studies. The workshop was designed to elicit ideas about the kinds of knowledge needed to understand the phenomenon oftransnational crime whether it is in fact the global threat to democracy and to free enterprise that it is sometimes portrayed to be and to respond to it appro- priately. This proved to be a difficult task, because a literature, mostly descriptive, on transnational offenses is only beginning to emerge, and the complexities of responding to it are only beginning to be understood by those responsible for its prevention and control. NIT made clear that they hoped the workshop participants would lay Six

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x PREFACE out the full scope of research issues on transnational crime rather than constraining the discussion to issues specific to NIT's mandate to assist state and local jurisdictions. Thus the discussion covered a range of domestic and foreign policy concerns both in the United States and abroad. An issue of particular interest was whether transnational crime can in fact be mea- sured and, if so, how to bring greater accuracy to its measurement. The Committee on Law and Justice was fortunate in that we were able to bring together most of the best minds and scholars working on this subject. The resulting report provides useful critiques of current perspec- tives and makes equally useful suggestions for learning more about transnational crime. The current knowledge base in this area makes it possible at this point to map out only the most basic of research questions. And, while there was some disagreement about the nature of transnational crime problems, most workshop participants expressed their concern that these problems are of considerable political urgency and require long-term attention. Many people made generous contributions to the workshop's success. We thank the authors of the papers presented Louise Shelley, American University; Phillip Williams, University of Pittsburgh; Nikos Passas, Temple University; and Kip Schlegel, University of Indiana for sharing their in- sights with the group. We thank the scholars who prepared comments for each of the papers lames Finkenauer, the National Institute of Justice; Elin Waring, Lehman College; Tom Naylor, McGill University; and Dan Schneider, U.S. Department of Justice. A special thank you goes to Faith Mitchell, director of the Division on Social and Economic Studies, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sci- ences and Education, who guided the organization of the workshop and identified the right people as authors, discussants, and participants. We thank Christine McShane, editor, for her invaluable editorial support; and Karen Autrey, senior project assistant, for organizational assistance and lo- gistical support. We would especially like to thank the workshop chair, Peter Renter, University of Maryland, and Carol Petrie, director of the Committee on Law and Justice, for their work in editing this report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with proce- dures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as pos- sible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objec

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PREFACE X' tivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the re- view of this report: Peter Lupsha, Department of Political Science, Univer- sity of New Mexico (emeritus); Mark H. Moore, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University; David Weisburd, Police Foundation, Washington, DC; Charles Wellford, Center for Applied Policy Studies, University of Maryland; and lames Woolsey, Shea & Gardner, Washington, DC. Although the individuals listed above have provided constructive com- ments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and . . tne institution. Charles Wellford, Chair Committee on Law and Justice

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Transnational Organized Crime

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