References

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Measurement in Education, and National Council on Measurement in Education
1985 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

1998 Draft Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Bowen, WG., and D. Bok
1998 The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Breland, H.M.
1998 National Trends in the Use of Test Scores in College Admissions. Available from Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

Breland, H.M., J. Maxey, G.T. McLure, M.J. Valigo, M.A. Boatwright, V.L. Ganley, and L.M. Jenkins
1995 Challenges in College Admissions: A Report of a Survey of Undergraduate Admission Policies, Practices, and Procedures. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, American College Testing, The College Board, Educational Testing Service, and National Association of College Admission Counselors.


Jencks, C.
1998 Racial bias in testing. In The Black-White Test Score Gap, C. Jencks and M. Phillips, editors. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Johnson, S.T.
1998 True Scores, Consequences, and People: Tests and Their Impact on Selection and Educational Progress of Minorities. Available from the Department of Human Development and Psychoeducational Studies, Howard University.


Kane, T.J.
1998 Racial and ethnic preferences in college admissions. In The Black-White Test Score Gap , C. Jencks and M. Phillips, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.


Lemarm, N.
1995a The great sorting. The Atlantic Monthly 276(3)(September):84–100.

1995b The structure of success in America. The Atlantic Monthly 276(2)(August): 41–60.

Lucas, S.R.
1998 Prominent Explanations and Potential Prominent Factors in the Black/White Test Score Gap. Available from Sociology Department, University of California, Berkeley.


Messick, S.
1993 Validity. In Educational Measurement, Third Edition, R. Linn, ed. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.



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References American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Measurement in Education, and National Council on Measurement in Education 1985 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 1998 Draft Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Bowen, WG., and D. Bok 1998 The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Breland, H.M. 1998 National Trends in the Use of Test Scores in College Admissions. Available from Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Breland, H.M., J. Maxey, G.T. McLure, M.J. Valigo, M.A. Boatwright, V.L. Ganley, and L.M. Jenkins 1995 Challenges in College Admissions: A Report of a Survey of Undergraduate Admission Policies, Practices, and Procedures. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, American College Testing, The College Board, Educational Testing Service, and National Association of College Admission Counselors. Jencks, C. 1998 Racial bias in testing. In The Black-White Test Score Gap, C. Jencks and M. Phillips, editors. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Johnson, S.T. 1998 True Scores, Consequences, and People: Tests and Their Impact on Selection and Educational Progress of Minorities. Available from the Department of Human Development and Psychoeducational Studies, Howard University. Kane, T.J. 1998 Racial and ethnic preferences in college admissions. In The Black-White Test Score Gap , C. Jencks and M. Phillips, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Lemarm, N. 1995a The great sorting. The Atlantic Monthly 276(3)(September):84–100. 1995b The structure of success in America. The Atlantic Monthly 276(2)(August): 41–60. Lucas, S.R. 1998 Prominent Explanations and Potential Prominent Factors in the Black/White Test Score Gap. Available from Sociology Department, University of California, Berkeley. Messick, S. 1993 Validity. In Educational Measurement, Third Edition, R. Linn, ed. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

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National Center for Education Statistics 1997a Access to Postsecondary Education for the 1992 High School Graduates . L. Berkner. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. 1997b Digest of Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. 1998a College access and affordability. In The Condition of Education . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. 1998b Fall Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions 1996. E.D. Tabs. NCES 1999–239 . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Research Council 1982 Ability Testing: Uses, Consequences, and Controversies. Part 1: Report of the Committee. A. Wigdor and W.R. Garner, eds. Committee on Ability Testing, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1999 High Stakes: Testing for Tacking, Promotion, and Graduation. J.P. Hcubcrt and R.M. Hauser, eds. Committee on Appropriate Test Use, Board on Testing and Assessment, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Steele, C.M. 1997 How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychological Association 55(6):613–629. Steele, C.M., and J. Aronson 1995 Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(5):797–811. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology and Assessment 1992 Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions. Office of Technology Assessment, OTA-SET-519. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Vars, F.M., and W.G. Bowen 1998 Scholastic aptitude test scores, race, and academic performance in selective colleges and universities. In The Black-White Test Score Gap, C. Jencks and M. Phillips, eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Wagner, V. 1998 Minority admissions plunge 55% at Cal. San Francisco Examiner April 1. Wightman, L.F, and R.M. Jaeger 1998 High Stakes and Ubiquitous Presence: An Overview and Comparison of Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. The ACT Assessment Program and the SAT Program. Available from University of North Carolina, Educational Research Methodology. Willingham, W.W. 1998 Validity in College Selection: Context and Evidence. Available from Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

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