Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$62.25



View/Hide Left Panel

Committee on Military Nutrition Research

Activity Report

December 1, 1994 through May 31, 1999

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Prepared by

Mary I. Poos,

Rebecca Costello, and

Sydne J. Carlson-Newberry

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1999



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
--> Committee on Military Nutrition Research Activity Report December 1, 1994 through May 31, 1999 Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Prepared by Mary I. Poos, Rebecca Costello, and Sydne J. Carlson-Newberry NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999

OCR for page R1
--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. This report presents a summary of activities of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) and its Subcommittee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH) from December 1, 1994, through May 31, 1999. All of the activities mentioned here have resulted in reports that were previously published or submitted as letter reports to the sponsor and as such were reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This activities summary has not been separately reviewed and represents an overview of all activities during the project period as designated. The activities of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) from December 1, 1994, through May 31, 1999, were supported by grant DAMD17-94-J-4046 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. The activities of the Subcommittee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH) from August 15, 1995 to September 30, 1998, were supported by grant DAMD17-95-1-5037 from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. A separate report on the activities of the BCNH Subcommittee was submitted in June 1998. This report is available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Lock Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 Call (800) 626-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP's online bookstore at www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine and the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM's and FNB's home pages at www.national-academies.org/iom and www.national-academies.org/iom/fnb. Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

OCR for page R1
--> COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH (in December 1994) ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Chair), Salinas, California RICHARD L. ATKINSON, Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WILLIAM R. BEISEL, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD, Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology, and Metabolism, Stanford University School of Medicine and Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Palo Alto, California JOHN D. FERNSTROM, Department of Psychiatry, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania JOËL A. GRINKER, Program in Human Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor G. RICHARD JANSEN, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins ORVILLE A. LEVANDER, Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland GILBERT A. LEVEILLE, Nabisco Brands Incorporated, East Hanover, New Jersey JOHN E. VANDERVEEN, Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. Food and Nutrition Board Liaison JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stem Nutrition Center and Department of Medicine, Tufts University and New England Medical Center Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts U.S. Army Grant Officer Representative JAMES A. VOGEL, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts Staff BERNADETTE M. MARRIOTT, Program Director DONNA F. ALLEN, Project Assistant SUSAN M. KNASIAK, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
--> COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH (Current) JOHN E. VANDERVEEN (Chair), Rockville, Maryland LAWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG, Departments of Physiology and Neurobiology, and Exercise Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD, Nutrition Studies, Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System and Program in Human Biology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California WANDA L. CHENOWETH, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing JOHN D. FERNSTROM, Department of Psychiatry, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania ROBIN B. KANAREY, Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts ORVILLE A. LEVANDEK, Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland ESTHER M. STERNBERG, Chief, Neuroendocrine Immunology and Behavior Section, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland Food and Nutrition Board Liaison JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center Hospital and Departments of Medicine and Community Health, Tufts Medical School and School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, Massachusetts U.S. Army Grant Officer Representative LTC KARL E. FRIEDL, Military Operational Medicine Program, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland Staff MARY I. POOS (from May 23, 1998), Study Director MARIZA SILVA (from August 31, 1998), Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
--> FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD (in December 1994) JANET C. KING (Chair), Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley EDWIN L. BIERMAN (Vice Chair), Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice Chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana CUTBERTO GARZA (Vice Chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York PERRY L. ADKISSON, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station LINDSAY H. ALLEN, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis DENNIS M. BIER, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas FERGUS M. CLYDESDALE, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst HECTOR F. DeLUCA, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center and Department of Medicine, Tufts University and New England Medical Center Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts SCOTT M. GRUNDY, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas K. MICHAEL HAMBIDGE, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver LAURENCE N. KOLONEL, Epidemiology Program, Cancer Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu SANFORD A. MILLER, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio ALFRED SOMMER, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland VERNON R. YOUNG, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge STEVE L. TAYLOR (Ex-Officio), Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln ARTHUR H. RUBENSTEIN (IOM Council Liaison), Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Illinois

OCR for page R1
--> Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Director BERNADETTE M. MARRIOTT, Associate Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant JAMAINE L. TINKER, Financial Associate

OCR for page R1
--> FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD (Current) CUTBERTO GARZA (Chair), Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice Chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign LINDSAY H. ALLEN, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis BENJAMIN CABALLERO, Center for Human Nutrition, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland FERGUS M. CLYDESDALE, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center Hospital and Departments of Medicine and Community Health, Tufts Medical School and School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, Massachusetts SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas CHARLES H. HENNEKENS, Harvard Medical School and Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts SANFORD A. MILLER, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio ROSS L. PRENTICE, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington A. CATHARINE ROSS, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBERT E. SMITH, R. E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania VERNON R. YOUNG, Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge STEVE L. TAYLOR (Ex-Officio), Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant GARY WALKER, Financial Associate

OCR for page R1
This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
--> Preface The issues addressed in this report as well as in the previous activity report, Committee on Military Nutrition Research Activity Report April 1, 1992–November 30, 1994 (IOM, 1994a), illustrate the diversity of activities addressed by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR, the committee). This diversity has required the use of a broad range of expertise to respond to the issues brought to the CMNR. The range of scientific disciplines represented on the CMNR has been augmented as necessary through the use of workshops or special advisors to enable the CMNR to bring the degree and breadth of expertise necessary to properly respond to the subject under review. The committee has been pleased with and is very appreciative of the willing participation of the invited participants in these sessions and of their provision of written papers, which have constituted a major part of the CMNR reports. Many of these workshops have included experts from within the military who have shared their research activities and information. They have been excellent representatives of the quality of research conducted by the military on many of these problems. The military is to be commended for continuing to ensure that the nutritional needs of its personnel are adequately met during the stress of military operations through its support of nutrition and related research. There has also been interest and support for modifications of rations of military personnel consistent with the advice provided by the nutrition and public health leadership in the United States. The CMNR is cognizant of the desire to balance long-term health considerations with the demands of maintaining performance under the environmental extremes of military operations. The ability of operational rations to help sustain military performance has been the subject of CMNR review since 1982. Field studies have shown nutrient intake, other than calories, is sufficient to maintain the weight and performance of troops in the field. Complex interactions involving palatability of the ration

OCR for page R1
--> components, convenience, fluid intake, socialization, and physical and psychological stresses that influence the consumption of operational rations are discussed in the publication, Not Eating Enough, Overcoming Underconsumption of Operational Rations (IOM, 1995a). Further evaluation of these complex factors are reviewed in the reports, Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field (IOM, 1999b), The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance (IOM, 1999c), and the letter report on Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress in Military Personnel (February 12, 1999) and will undoubtedly continue to be of interest to the military and the CMNR. We appreciate the close working relationships with James A. Vogel, who is now retired; Harris R. Lieberman, who replaced him at the Military Nutrition Division (currently the Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division) at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine; and LTC Karl E. Friedl of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command for the excellent liaison they have provided between the military and the committee. They greatly assisted the work of the committee by bringing issues forward for consideration and helping to identify expertise familiar with these problems, particularly from within the Armed Forces. As chair, I express my deep appreciation to all of the committee members past (Richard L. Atkinson, William R. Beisel, Joël A. Grinker, G. Richard Jansen, Gilbert A. Leveille, Douglas W. Wilmore) and present who have given their time, dedication, and expertise to the careful analysis of the issues and to developing the conclusions and recommendations of the committee. I would especially like to thank Dr. Robert O. Nesheim, who retired as Chair of the committee in June 1998, for providing the strong and thoughtful leadership for CMNR since its inception in 1982. He is a hard act to follow. I also thank all participants in the many workshops who have greatly aided our activities and assured that the appropriate expertise has been available to the committee. Finally, I wish to express my appreciation to the staff of the Food and Nutrition Board assigned to this activity over the past 5 years. In particular I acknowledge for myself and the entire committee the outstanding support presently provided to this activity by Mary I. Poos, study director and Mariza Silva, project assistant. I also extend my sincere appreciation to Rebecca B. Costello, former study director; Bernadette M. Marriott, former study director; Sydne J. Carlson-Newberry, former program officer; Susan M. Knasiak-Raley, former research assistant; Melissa L. Van Doren, former project assistant; and Donna F. Allen, former project assistant. They have worked with extreme dedication to update and complete publication of several pending CMNR reports and to assure a timely response to the issues currently under consideration by the committee. JOHN E. VANDERVEEN, Ph.D. CHAIR

OCR for page R1
--> Contents     Preface   ix     Summary   1     Background And Introduction   3     Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption Of Military Operational Rations   9     A Review Of The Revision Of The Medical Services Nutrition Allowances, Standards, And Education   13     A Review Of Issues Related To Iron Status In Women During U.S. Army Basic Combat Training   17     Nutritional Needs In Cold And In High-Altitude Environments   21     Pennington Biomedical Research Center September 1996 Site Visit   25     Emerging Technologies For Nutrition Research   29     Assessing Readiness In Military Women   33     Reducing Stress Fracture In Physically Active Military Women   37

OCR for page R1
-->     A Review Of Antioxidants And Oxidative Stress In Military Personnel   41     Military Strategies For Sustainment Of Nutrition And Immune Function In The Field   45     The Role Of Protein And Amino Acids In Sustaining And Enhancing Performance   49     References   53     Appendixes         A. Meetings of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (including meetings of the Subcommittee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women), December 1, 1994–May 31, 1999   59     B. Biographical Sketches of Members of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, December 1, 1994–May 31, 1999   65     C. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Workshop Report Not Eating Enough, Submitted September 1995   77     D. Letter Report: Review of the Revision of the Medical Services Nutrition Allowances, Standards, and Education (AR 40-25, 1985), Submitted October 1995   95     E. Letter Report: Review of Issues Related to Iron Status in Women During U.S. Army Basic Combat Training, Submitted December 1995   121     F. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Workshop Report Nutritional Needs in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments, Submitted March 1996   141     G. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Brief Report Pennington Biomedical Research Center September 1996 Site Visit, Submitted November 1996   163     H. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Workshop Report Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research, Submitted September 1997   185

OCR for page R1
-->     I. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Workshop Report Assessing Readiness in Military Women, Submitted March 1998   207     J. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Brief Report: Reducing Stress Fractures in Physically Active Military Women, Submitted June 1998   219     K. Letter Report: Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress in Military Personnel, Submitted February, 1999   229     L. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Workshop Report: Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field, Submitted May 1999   257     M. Conclusions and Recommendations from the Workshop Report: The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance, Submitted June 1999   283

OCR for page R1
This page in the original is blank.