Notes

    1.  

    U.S. Department of Energy (1997), World Resources Institute (1996).

    2.  

    World Resources Institute (1996), Food and Agriculture Organization (1997).

    3.  

    World Resources Institute (1996).

    4.  

    World Resources Institute (1996), U.S. Department of Energy (1997).

    5.  

    Kates et al. (1985), National Research Council (1988).

    6.  

    Social Learning Group (1998).

    7.  

    Scott (1996), Bijlsma (1996).

    8.  

    Reilly (1996).

    9.  

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996b).

    10.  

    Ibid.

    11.  

    Caulfield (1985).

    12.  

    Moran (1981).

    13.  

    Hecht and Cockburn (1989).

    14.  

    Skole et al. (1994).

    15.  

    Pielke and Landsea (1998), Pielke and Pielke (1997), Greenpeace International (1994).

    16.  

    Blaikie (1994).

    17.  

    McMichael (1996).

    18.  

    Beamish (1995), Hutchings (1996), Brander (1996), Finlayson and McCay (1998).

    19.  

    National Research Council (1996a), National Research Council (1999).

    20.  

    Thomas (1954), Sauer (1963), Steward (1955), Glacken (1967), Turner et al. (1990), National Research Council (1993).

    21.  

    Turner et al. (1994, 1995), Moran et al. (1994, 1996).

    22.  

    Deforestation, Skole et al. (1994), Dale (1994); land use change, Rudel (1989), Entwistle et al. (1998).

    23.  

    Turner et al. (1995), Moran et al. (1994), National Research Council (1998).

    24.  

    Turner et al. (1995).

    25.  

    Riebsame (1990), Ojima et al. (1993), Parton et al. (1994).

    26.  

    Crosby (1972), McNeill (1992), Richardson (1992).

    27.  

    Balee (1994).

    28.  

    Tropical deforestation, Allen and Barnes (1985); living standard, Skole et al. (1994).

    29.  

    Hayami and Ruttan (1985), Boserup (1981).

    30.  

    Hardin (1968).

    31.  

    Netting (1981), Ostrom (1990).

    32.  

    Blaikie and Brookfield (1987).

    33.  

    Tucker and Richards (1983), Hecht and Cockburn (1989), Worster (1988).

    34.  

    Moran et al. (1994), Mausel et al. (1993), Brondizio et al. (1996).

    35.  

    Guyer and Lambin (1993), National Research Council (1998).

    36.  

    Turner et al. (1995).

    37.  

    Moran (1995), Skole et al. (1994).

    38.  

    Foresta (1992), Gillis and Repetto (1988).

    39.  

    Everett (1996).

    40.  

    Steele (1996), National Research Council (1996c).

    41.  

    Smith (1986), Sinclair (1987).

    42.  

    Folke and Kautsky (1996), Bailey et al. (1996), Meltzoff and LiPuma (1986).

    43.  

    Stonich et al. (1997).

    44.  

    McCay and Acheson (1987), Cordell (1989), Ostrom (1990).

    45.  

    Environmental impacts, Schipper et al. (1992), Schipper and Martinot (1993); other factors, National Research Council (1992), Dietz and Rosa (1997).

    46.  

    Schipper et al. (1992), Socolow et al. (1994), International Energy Agency (1997).



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Notes 1.   U.S. Department of Energy (1997), World Resources Institute (1996). 2.   World Resources Institute (1996), Food and Agriculture Organization (1997). 3.   World Resources Institute (1996). 4.   World Resources Institute (1996), U.S. Department of Energy (1997). 5.   Kates et al. (1985), National Research Council (1988). 6.   Social Learning Group (1998). 7.   Scott (1996), Bijlsma (1996). 8.   Reilly (1996). 9.   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996b). 10.   Ibid. 11.   Caulfield (1985). 12.   Moran (1981). 13.   Hecht and Cockburn (1989). 14.   Skole et al. (1994). 15.   Pielke and Landsea (1998), Pielke and Pielke (1997), Greenpeace International (1994). 16.   Blaikie (1994). 17.   McMichael (1996). 18.   Beamish (1995), Hutchings (1996), Brander (1996), Finlayson and McCay (1998). 19.   National Research Council (1996a), National Research Council (1999). 20.   Thomas (1954), Sauer (1963), Steward (1955), Glacken (1967), Turner et al. (1990), National Research Council (1993). 21.   Turner et al. (1994, 1995), Moran et al. (1994, 1996). 22.   Deforestation, Skole et al. (1994), Dale (1994); land use change, Rudel (1989), Entwistle et al. (1998). 23.   Turner et al. (1995), Moran et al. (1994), National Research Council (1998). 24.   Turner et al. (1995). 25.   Riebsame (1990), Ojima et al. (1993), Parton et al. (1994). 26.   Crosby (1972), McNeill (1992), Richardson (1992). 27.   Balee (1994). 28.   Tropical deforestation, Allen and Barnes (1985); living standard, Skole et al. (1994). 29.   Hayami and Ruttan (1985), Boserup (1981). 30.   Hardin (1968). 31.   Netting (1981), Ostrom (1990). 32.   Blaikie and Brookfield (1987). 33.   Tucker and Richards (1983), Hecht and Cockburn (1989), Worster (1988). 34.   Moran et al. (1994), Mausel et al. (1993), Brondizio et al. (1996). 35.   Guyer and Lambin (1993), National Research Council (1998). 36.   Turner et al. (1995). 37.   Moran (1995), Skole et al. (1994). 38.   Foresta (1992), Gillis and Repetto (1988). 39.   Everett (1996). 40.   Steele (1996), National Research Council (1996c). 41.   Smith (1986), Sinclair (1987). 42.   Folke and Kautsky (1996), Bailey et al. (1996), Meltzoff and LiPuma (1986). 43.   Stonich et al. (1997). 44.   McCay and Acheson (1987), Cordell (1989), Ostrom (1990). 45.   Environmental impacts, Schipper et al. (1992), Schipper and Martinot (1993); other factors, National Research Council (1992), Dietz and Rosa (1997). 46.   Schipper et al. (1992), Socolow et al. (1994), International Energy Agency (1997).

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47.   Shafik (1994), Grossman and Krueger (1995), Holtz-Eakin and Selden (1995), Dietz and Rosa (1997). 48.   Schurr (1984), National Research Council (1992). 49.   International Energy Agency (1997). 50.   Wernick and Ausubel (1995), Nakicenovic (1996), Wernick (1996). 51.   Energy use, Bohi (1981), Cropper and Oates (1992), Dillman et al. (1983), National Research Council (1984b); social group membership, Lutzenhiser (1993, 1997); individual habits, National Research Council (1984a), Lutzenhiser (1993), Gardner and Stern (1996). 52.   National Research Council (1984a), Stern (1992), Gardner and Stern (1996). 53.   Incentives, Bohi (1981), Cropper and Oates (1992), National Research Council (1984b), Stern et al. (1986); behavioral and informational factors, National Research Council (1984a), Stern (1992), Gardner and Stern (1996). 54.   National Academy of Engineering (1989), Socolow et al. (1994). 55.   Wernick and Ausubel (1995), National Research Council (1997). 56.   Kinzig and Socolow (1994), Schlesinger (1997). 57.   Consumption concept, National Research Council (1997), analysis of materials, National Academy of Engineering (1994), Wernick and Ausubel (1995), Daedalus (1996). 58.   Schipper and Myers (1993). 59.   Nordhaus and Yohe (1983). 60.   Lave and Dowlatabadi (1993), Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996). 61.   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996a). 62.   Rosenzweig (1985), Parry et al. (1988). 63.   Rosenzweig and Parry (1994), Easterling et al. (1993). 64.   Reilly (1996), Rosenzweig and Parry (1994). 65.   Nordhaus (1991). 66.   Downing (1995), Liverman (1992, 1994b), Watts and Bohle (1993). 67.   Easterling et al. (1993), Rosenberg et al. (1993). 68.   Cohen (1996). 69.   Cane et al. (1994). 70.   Colwell (1996), McMichael (1996), Patz et al. (1996). 71.   Kalkstein (1993, 1995), Kalkstein and Tan (1995). 72.   Ortloff and Kolata (1993), Shimata et al. (1991). 73.   Lamb (1995), Vickers (1997). 74.   Mileti et al. (1995), Wenger (1985), Drabek (1986), Burton et al. (1993), Mileti et al. (1995). 75.   Mileti et al. (1995), National Research Council (1999). 76.   National Research Council (1996b). 77.   Cane et al. (1994). 78.   Bentham (1993). 79.   E.g., Homer-Dixon (1991), Homer-Dixon et al. (1993), Homer-Dixon and Levy (1995), Myers (1993). 80.   E.g., Gleick (1989), Liverman (1994a), Lonergan and Kavanagh (1991). 81.   Krasner (1983), Levy et al. (1995), Young (1994a). 82.   Regime formation, Young and Osherenko (1993); modes of influence, Haas et al. (1993), Young (1996); financial transfers, Keohane and Levy (1996); policy development, Social Learning Group, (1998); implementation of agreements, Jacobson and Weiss (1990); Victor et al. (1997); analogy between international and local levels, Keohane (1993), Keohane and Ostrom (1995); systems for compliance, Mitchell (1994), Chayes and Chayes (1995). 83.   Nichols (1984), Shavell (1985), Tietenberg (1985), Baumol and Oates (1988), Cropper and Oates (1992), Peck (1993), Gardner and Stern (1996). 84.   Keohane and Levy (1996). 85.   Haas (1990), Thacher (1993), Parson (1993).

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86.   Haas (1993), Litfin (1994). 87.   Social Learning Group (1998). 88.   Mitchell (1994), Chayes and Chayes (1995), Victor et al. (1997). 89.   March and Olsen (1989), North (1990), Powell and DiMaggio (1991), Scott (1995). 90.   Ostrom (1990), Bromley (1992), Baland and Platteau (1996). 91.   Groves et al. (1987), North (1990, 1994). 92.   Schlager and Ostrom (1992), Hanna and Munasinghe (1995a, b), Hanna (1996). 93.   McCay and Acheson (1987), Berkes et al. (1989), Feeny et al. (1990). 94.   Levine (1986). 95.   Axelrod (1984), McKean (1992), Ostrom et al. (1994). 96.   McCay (1995), Young (1994b), Keohane and Ostrom (1995), Renard (1991). 97.   Tietenberg (1991). 98.   Squires et al. (1995), McCay (1995), Young and McCay (1995). 99.   Tietenberg (1985, 1992), Blinder (1987). 100.   Described in Hempel (1996). 101.   Cropper and Oates (1992). 102.   Mitchell and Carson (1989), Kahneman et al. (1993), Portney (1994), Hanemann (1994), Diamond and Hausman (1994). 103.   National Research Council (1994a). 104.   Keeney and Raiffa (1976), Edwards and Newman (1982), von Winterfeldt and Edwards (1986), Fischhoff et al. (1984), Gregory et al. (1993), Brody and Rosen (1994). 105.   Simulations and policy exercises, Brewer (1986), Parson (1996, 1997), Toth (1994); deliberative methods, Renn et al. (1993, 1995), Sagoff (1998). 106.   Viscusi and Moore (1989), Cropper et al. (1994). 107.   Zeckhauser (1975), Leigh (1989), Ellis (1993). 108.   E.g., Fischhoff et al. (1984), Slovic (1987), National Research Council (1989, 1996b), Krimsky and Golding (1992). 109.   E.g., Vaughan (1993, 1995), Flynn et al. (1994), Stern et al. (1993), Barke et al. (1997). 110.   Fischhoff et al. (1981), National Research Council (1994b, 1996b). 111.   National Research Council (1996b). 112.   Ibid., Renn et al. (1995), Dietz and Stern (1998). 113.   E.g., Jasanoff (1986), Social Learning Group (1998), National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (1991), Ludwig et al. (1993). 114.   Grobecker et al. (1974). 115.   Weyant et al. (1996), Parson and Fisher-Vanden (1997). 116.   Nordhaus and Yohe (1983). 117.   Lave and Dowlatabadi (1993), Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996). 118.   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1989), Mintzer (1987), Rotmans (1990). 119.   Nordhaus (1994), Peck and Teisberg (1992), Manne et al. (1993), Wigley et al. (1996), Grubb et al. (1995), Hourcade and Chapuis (1995). 120.   Models focusing on uncertainties, Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996), Hope et al. (1993), Tol (1995), van Asselt et al. (1996), models focusing on adaptive strategies, Hammitt et al. (1992), Yohe and Wallace (1996). 121.   Alcamo et al. (1994). 122.   Claims about market impacts, Mendelsohn and Newman (1998), Weyant et al. (1996), Yohe et al. (1996); claims about costs of abatement paths, Manne et al. (1993), Peck (1993), Nordhaus (1994), Kolstad (1996); claims about high relative costs of immediate action, Hammitt et al. (1992), Richels and Edmonds (1995), Wigley et al. (1996), Yohe and Wallace (1996). 123.   Nordhaus and Yohe (1983), Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996), Yohe and Wallace (1996). 124.   Alcamo et al. (1995).