47.  

    Shafik (1994), Grossman and Krueger (1995), Holtz-Eakin and Selden (1995), Dietz and Rosa (1997).

    48.  

    Schurr (1984), National Research Council (1992).

    49.  

    International Energy Agency (1997).

    50.  

    Wernick and Ausubel (1995), Nakicenovic (1996), Wernick (1996).

    51.  

    Energy use, Bohi (1981), Cropper and Oates (1992), Dillman et al. (1983), National Research Council (1984b); social group membership, Lutzenhiser (1993, 1997); individual habits, National Research Council (1984a), Lutzenhiser (1993), Gardner and Stern (1996).

    52.  

    National Research Council (1984a), Stern (1992), Gardner and Stern (1996).

    53.  

    Incentives, Bohi (1981), Cropper and Oates (1992), National Research Council (1984b), Stern et al. (1986); behavioral and informational factors, National Research Council (1984a), Stern (1992), Gardner and Stern (1996).

    54.  

    National Academy of Engineering (1989), Socolow et al. (1994).

    55.  

    Wernick and Ausubel (1995), National Research Council (1997).

    56.  

    Kinzig and Socolow (1994), Schlesinger (1997).

    57.  

    Consumption concept, National Research Council (1997), analysis of materials, National Academy of Engineering (1994), Wernick and Ausubel (1995), Daedalus (1996).

    58.  

    Schipper and Myers (1993).

    59.  

    Nordhaus and Yohe (1983).

    60.  

    Lave and Dowlatabadi (1993), Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996).

    61.  

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996a).

    62.  

    Rosenzweig (1985), Parry et al. (1988).

    63.  

    Rosenzweig and Parry (1994), Easterling et al. (1993).

    64.  

    Reilly (1996), Rosenzweig and Parry (1994).

    65.  

    Nordhaus (1991).

    66.  

    Downing (1995), Liverman (1992, 1994b), Watts and Bohle (1993).

    67.  

    Easterling et al. (1993), Rosenberg et al. (1993).

    68.  

    Cohen (1996).

    69.  

    Cane et al. (1994).

    70.  

    Colwell (1996), McMichael (1996), Patz et al. (1996).

    71.  

    Kalkstein (1993, 1995), Kalkstein and Tan (1995).

    72.  

    Ortloff and Kolata (1993), Shimata et al. (1991).

    73.  

    Lamb (1995), Vickers (1997).

    74.  

    Mileti et al. (1995), Wenger (1985), Drabek (1986), Burton et al. (1993), Mileti et al. (1995).

    75.  

    Mileti et al. (1995), National Research Council (1999).

    76.  

    National Research Council (1996b).

    77.  

    Cane et al. (1994).

    78.  

    Bentham (1993).

    79.  

    E.g., Homer-Dixon (1991), Homer-Dixon et al. (1993), Homer-Dixon and Levy (1995), Myers (1993).

    80.  

    E.g., Gleick (1989), Liverman (1994a), Lonergan and Kavanagh (1991).

    81.  

    Krasner (1983), Levy et al. (1995), Young (1994a).

    82.  

    Regime formation, Young and Osherenko (1993); modes of influence, Haas et al. (1993), Young (1996); financial transfers, Keohane and Levy (1996); policy development, Social Learning Group, (1998); implementation of agreements, Jacobson and Weiss (1990); Victor et al. (1997); analogy between international and local levels, Keohane (1993), Keohane and Ostrom (1995); systems for compliance, Mitchell (1994), Chayes and Chayes (1995).

    83.  

    Nichols (1984), Shavell (1985), Tietenberg (1985), Baumol and Oates (1988), Cropper and Oates (1992), Peck (1993), Gardner and Stern (1996).

    84.  

    Keohane and Levy (1996).

    85.  

    Haas (1990), Thacher (1993), Parson (1993).



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