86.  

    Haas (1993), Litfin (1994).

    87.  

    Social Learning Group (1998).

    88.  

    Mitchell (1994), Chayes and Chayes (1995), Victor et al. (1997).

    89.  

    March and Olsen (1989), North (1990), Powell and DiMaggio (1991), Scott (1995).

    90.  

    Ostrom (1990), Bromley (1992), Baland and Platteau (1996).

    91.  

    Groves et al. (1987), North (1990, 1994).

    92.  

    Schlager and Ostrom (1992), Hanna and Munasinghe (1995a, b), Hanna (1996).

    93.  

    McCay and Acheson (1987), Berkes et al. (1989), Feeny et al. (1990).

    94.  

    Levine (1986).

    95.  

    Axelrod (1984), McKean (1992), Ostrom et al. (1994).

    96.  

    McCay (1995), Young (1994b), Keohane and Ostrom (1995), Renard (1991).

    97.  

    Tietenberg (1991).

    98.  

    Squires et al. (1995), McCay (1995), Young and McCay (1995).

    99.  

    Tietenberg (1985, 1992), Blinder (1987).

    100.  

    Described in Hempel (1996).

    101.  

    Cropper and Oates (1992).

    102.  

    Mitchell and Carson (1989), Kahneman et al. (1993), Portney (1994), Hanemann (1994), Diamond and Hausman (1994).

    103.  

    National Research Council (1994a).

    104.  

    Keeney and Raiffa (1976), Edwards and Newman (1982), von Winterfeldt and Edwards (1986), Fischhoff et al. (1984), Gregory et al. (1993), Brody and Rosen (1994).

    105.  

    Simulations and policy exercises, Brewer (1986), Parson (1996, 1997), Toth (1994); deliberative methods, Renn et al. (1993, 1995), Sagoff (1998).

    106.  

    Viscusi and Moore (1989), Cropper et al. (1994).

    107.  

    Zeckhauser (1975), Leigh (1989), Ellis (1993).

    108.  

    E.g., Fischhoff et al. (1984), Slovic (1987), National Research Council (1989, 1996b), Krimsky and Golding (1992).

    109.  

    E.g., Vaughan (1993, 1995), Flynn et al. (1994), Stern et al. (1993), Barke et al. (1997).

    110.  

    Fischhoff et al. (1981), National Research Council (1994b, 1996b).

    111.  

    National Research Council (1996b).

    112.  

    Ibid., Renn et al. (1995), Dietz and Stern (1998).

    113.  

    E.g., Jasanoff (1986), Social Learning Group (1998), National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (1991), Ludwig et al. (1993).

    114.  

    Grobecker et al. (1974).

    115.  

    Weyant et al. (1996), Parson and Fisher-Vanden (1997).

    116.  

    Nordhaus and Yohe (1983).

    117.  

    Lave and Dowlatabadi (1993), Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996).

    118.  

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1989), Mintzer (1987), Rotmans (1990).

    119.  

    Nordhaus (1994), Peck and Teisberg (1992), Manne et al. (1993), Wigley et al. (1996), Grubb et al. (1995), Hourcade and Chapuis (1995).

    120.  

    Models focusing on uncertainties, Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996), Hope et al. (1993), Tol (1995), van Asselt et al. (1996), models focusing on adaptive strategies, Hammitt et al. (1992), Yohe and Wallace (1996).

    121.  

    Alcamo et al. (1994).

    122.  

    Claims about market impacts, Mendelsohn and Newman (1998), Weyant et al. (1996), Yohe et al. (1996); claims about costs of abatement paths, Manne et al. (1993), Peck (1993), Nordhaus (1994), Kolstad (1996); claims about high relative costs of immediate action, Hammitt et al. (1992), Richels and Edmonds (1995), Wigley et al. (1996), Yohe and Wallace (1996).

    123.  

    Nordhaus and Yohe (1983), Morgan and Dowlatabadi (1996), Yohe and Wallace (1996).

    124.  

    Alcamo et al. (1995).



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