Final. EPA/540/1-89/002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, D.C.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1991. Guidelines for Developmental Toxicity Risk Assessment. Notice. Fed. Regist. 56(234):63798–63826.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Methods for the Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry. EPA/600/8-90/066F. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, Ohio.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Notice. Fed. Regist. 61(79):17960–18011.


Leisenring, W., and L. Ryan. 1992. Statistical properties of the NOAEL. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 15:161–171.


Nair, R.S., J.H. Sherman, M.W. Stevens, and F.R. Johannsen. 1995. Selecting a more realistic uncertainty factor: Reducing compounding effects of multiple uncertainties. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 1:576–589.


Opresko, D.M., R.A. Young, R.A. Faust, S.S. Talmage, A.P. Watson, R.H. Ross, K.A. Davidson, and J. King. 1998. Chemical warfare agents: Estimating oral reference doses. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 156:1–183.


Swartout, J. 1996. Subchronic-to-Chronic Uncertainty Factor for the Reference Dose. Abstract F2.03. Society of Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, New Orleans, La.

Swartout, J.C., P.S. Price, M.L. Dourson, H.L. Carlson-Lynch, and R.E. Keenan. 1998. A probabilistic framework for the reference dose (Probabilistic RfD). Risk Anal. 18:271–282.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement