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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Appendix D Solvent Green 3 BACKGROUND ALTERNATIVE NAMES for solvent green 3 include 1,4-di-p-toluidino-9,10-anthraquinone (PTA), 1,4-bis((4-methylphenyl)amino)-9,10-anthracenedione, 1,4-dip-tolylamino-anthraquinone, quinizarine green G base, and D&C green no. 6. Solvent green 3 is a component of the new and old green-dye mixtures. TOXICOKINETICS When inhaled, solvent green 3 clears very slowly from the lung (half live, 280 days) (Sun et al. 1987). In a study on the retention of solvent green 3 in the lungs, rats were given a suspension containing the dye (Henderson et al. 1988). The authors observed that 87% of the initial dose remained in the lungs 24 hr after exposure. TOXICITY SUMMARY Effects in Humans There have been no reports of humans exposed either accidentally or in controlled laboratory environments to solvent green 3.
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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Effects in Animals ONE-TIME EXPOSURE The oral lethal dose for 50% of the test animals (LD50) for rats has been reported at 3 grams per kilogram (g/kg) of body weight, >10 g/kg of body weight, and >15 g/kg of body weight (reviewed in Dacre et al. 1979). The oral LD50 in rabbits is >10 g/kg of body weight. Solvent green 3 produced no skin irritation when applied to intact or abraded skin of rabbits and produced ''minimal'' erythema in the eyes of rabbits (Dacre et al. 1979). REPEATED EXPOSURES No repeated-exposure studies have been conducted on solvent green 3 alone. Sun et al. (1987) conducted 4-week and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies in rats using a mixture of 70:30 solvent green 3 and solvent yellow 33, the major dye components of the new green smoke. That study is reviewed in detail in Chapter 3. A repeated inhalation study of a combusted smoke containing a mixture of solvent green 3, solvent yellow 33, and disperse red 9 was conducted by Marrs et al (1984). That study is reviewed in Chapter 2. CARCINOGENICITY AND MUTAGENICITY Solvent green 3 is not mutagenic in the Salmonella typhimurium strains with or without activation, according to one report (Brown and Brown 1976), but Epler (1979) reported positive results in both the S. typhimurium assay and the thymidine kinase locus mouse lymphoma assay. SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY The major health concern with the use of solvent green 3 as a component of a colored smoke is that the compound is poorly soluble in the lung and will accumulate with repeated exposures to high concentrations of the material.
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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 REFERENCES Brown, J.P. and R.J. Brown. 1976. Mutagenesis by 9,10-anthraquinone derivatives and related compounds in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat. Res. 40(3):203-224. Epler, J.L. 1979. U.S. Army Project Order No. 9600. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. Dacre, J.C., W.D. Burrows, C.W.R. Wade, A.F. Hegyeli, T.A. Miller, D.R. Cogley. 1979. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. V. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of Seven Chemicals Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions. Tech. Rep. No. 7704. AD A090631. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD. Henderson, R.F., W.E. Bechtold, M.A. Medinsky, J.P. Fischer, and T.T. Lee, 1988. The effect of molecular weight/lipophilicity on clearance of organic compounds from lungs. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 95(3):515-521. Marrs, T.C., H.F. Colgrave, M. Gazzard, and R.F.R. Brown. 1984. Inhalation toxicity of a smoke containing solvent yellow 33, disperse red 9 and solvent green 3 in laboratory animals. Human Toxicol. 3(4):289-308. Sun, J.D., R.F. Henderson, T.C. Marshall, Y.-S. Cheng, J.S. Dutcher, J.A. Pickrell, J.L. Mauderly, F.F. Hahn, D.A. Banas, F.A. Seiler, and C.H. Hobbs. 1987. The inhalation toxicity of two commercial dyes: Solvent yellow 33 and solvent green 3. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 8:358-371.
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