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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Appendix H 1,4-Diamino-2,3-Dihydroanthraquinone BACKGROUND ALTERNATIVE NAMES for 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DDA) (after 1972) include 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydro-9,10-anthracenedione (before 1972) and leuco-1,4-diaminoanthraquinone. DDA is a component of the old violet-dye mixture. TOXICOKINETICS No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DDA. TOXICITY SUMMARY Effects in Humans No data are available on the effects of DDA in humans. Effects in Animals No data are available on the systemic toxicity of DDA in animals.
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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Mutagenicity Studies In a report by Lundy and Eaton (1994), DDA was found to produce positive results in the Ames assay. In a study by Brown and Brown (1976), as cited by Dacre (1979), DDA was reported to produce ''marginally adequate'' evidence of mutagenicity in the Ames assay. SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY Experimental data are insufficient to assess the toxic effects of DDA. REFERENCES Brown, J.P., and R.J. Brown. 1976. Mutagenesis by 9,10-anthraquinones derivatives and related compounds in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat. Res. 40(3):203-224. Dacre, J.C., W.D. Burrows, C.W.R. Wade, A.F. Hegyeli, T.A. Miller, and D.R. Cogley. 1979. Problem Definition Studies on Potential Environmental Pollutants. V. Physical, Chemical, Toxicological, and Biological Properties of Seven Chemicals Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions. Technical Report No 7704. AD A090631. U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD. Lundy, D., and J. Eaton. 1994. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). WRAIR/RT-94-0001. AD-A276-774. U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
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