Appendix I
1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone

BACKGROUND

1,4-DIAMINOANTHRAQUINONE (DAA) is a combustion product of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone, a component of the old violet-dye mixture.

TOXICOKINETICS

No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DAA.

TOXICITY SUMMARY

Effects in Humans

No data are available on the effect of DAA in humans.

Effects in Animals

DAA was found to produce moderate eye irritation in rabbits at a dose of 0.5 grams (g) for 24 hr (Lundy and Eaton 1994). DAA has a reported



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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 Appendix I 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone BACKGROUND 1,4-DIAMINOANTHRAQUINONE (DAA) is a combustion product of 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone, a component of the old violet-dye mixture. TOXICOKINETICS No data are available on the toxicokinetics of DAA. TOXICITY SUMMARY Effects in Humans No data are available on the effect of DAA in humans. Effects in Animals DAA was found to produce moderate eye irritation in rabbits at a dose of 0.5 grams (g) for 24 hr (Lundy and Eaton 1994). DAA has a reported

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Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants: Volume 3 lethal dose for 50% of the test animals (LD50) of 4.9 g per kilogram (kg) of body weight (route of exposure not reported) (RTECS 1981-82, as cited in Lundy and Eaton 1994). Mutagenicity Studies DAA was reported to produce positive effects in the Ames assay in a report by Lundy and Eaton (1994). Rubin (1982) also reported positive effects with DAA in the Ames assay and made the point that the results showed DAA to be more active in the Ames assay than DDA. SUBCOMMITTEE EVALUATION OF DYE TOXICITY Experimental data are insufficient to assess the toxic effects of DAA. REFERENCES Lundy, D., and J. Eaton. 1994. Occupational Health Hazards Posed by Inventory U.S. Army Smoke/Obscurant Munitions (Review Update). WRAIR/RT-94-0001. AD-A276-774. U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH. RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances). 1981-82. 1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone. National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, Cincinnati, OH. Rubin, I. B., M.V. Buchanan, and J.H. Moneyhun. 1982. Chemical Characterization and Toxicologic Evaluation of Airborne Mixtures. Chemical Characterization of Combusted Inventory Red and Violet Smoke Mixes. Final Report. ORNL/TM-8810. AD A1311527. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN .