Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 75 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1998

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER0-309-06295-0 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W.WASHINGTON, D.C.20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     HENRY HERMAN BARSCHALL BY ROBERT ADAIR AND WILLY HAEBERLI   3     PAUL DOUGHTY BARTLETT BY F. H. WESTHEIMER   25     RICHARD BARRY BERNSTEIN BY JAMES L. KINSEY AND RAPHAEL D. LEVINE   39     NORRIS E. BRADBURY BY HAROLD M. AGNEW AND RAEMER E. SCHREIBER   59     RICHARD DAGOBERT BRAUER BY J. A. GREEN   71     MELVIN CALVIN BY GLENN T. SEABORG AND ANDREW A. BENSON   97     HALLOWELL DAVIS BY ROBERT GALAMBOS   117     CARL BARTON HUFFAKER BY LEOPOLDO E. CALTAGIRONE AND DONALD L. DAHLSTEN   139

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75     STEPHEN COLE KLEENE BY SAUNDERS MAC LANE   155     ROBERT B. LEIGHTON BY JESSE L. GREENSTEIN   165     JOSEPH CARL ROBNETT LICKLIDER BY ROBERT M. FANO   191     OTTO E. NEUGEBAUER BY N. M. SWERDLOW   215     EVERETT C. OLSON BY MICHAEL A. BELL   241     ISADORE PERLMAN BY GLENN T. SEABORG AND FRANK ASARO   265     ROGER RANDALL DOUGAN REVELLE BY THOMAS F. MALONE, EDWARD D. GOLDBERG, AND WALTER MUNK   289     BRUNO BENEDETTO ROSSI BY GEORGE W. CLARK   311     FRANCIS OTTO SCHMITT BY GEORGE ADELMAN AND BARRY SMITH   343     JAMES AUGUSTINE SHANNON BY THOMAS J. KENNEDY, JR.   357     CARL RICHARD SODERBERG BY ASCHER H. SHAPIRO   381     WILLIAM S. VICKREY BY JACQUES H. DRÈZE   405

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Biographical Memoirs: VOLUME 75 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary

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