References

Asiander, O. 1987. The Swedish Dioxin Moratorium. Pp. 41-50 in Proceedings of the ASCE Dioxin Symposium. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineering.


Baier, R.W., and S.W. Weller. 1967. Catalytic and thermal decomposition of isopropyl methyl fluorophosphonate. Industrial Engineering and Chemical Process Design and Development 6(3): 380—385.

Brueggendick, H., and F.G. Pohl. 1993. Operating Experience with STEAGS Activated Carbon Processes-a/c/t®-in European Waste Incineration Plants. Pp. 787-794 in Proceedings of the Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh, School of Engineering, Center for Energy Research.


Campbell, C. 1998. Interview of Craig Campbell, Tooele Outreach Office, by Alvin Mushkatel, member of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, April 18, 1998.

Clarke, M.J. 1991. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW [municipal solid waste] incinerator emissions. Pp. 975-994 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Air and Waste Management Association.

Cohen, A.C., Jr. 1959. Simplified estimators for the normal distribution when samples are singly censored or truncated. Technometrics 1(3): 217-237.


EG&G (EG&G Defense Materials, Inc.). 1997. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF), RCRA Agent Trial Burn Report for the Liquid Incinerator System #2 [LIC/GB]. Prepared for Southern Research Institute, October 27, 1997. Tooele, Utah: EG&G Defense Materials, Inc.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Associated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and-Dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs): 1989 Update. EPA/625/3-89/016. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum.

EPA. 1991. Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces. 40 CFR 266, Subpart H. Effective August 21, 1991. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

EPA. 1994. Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Municipal Waste Combustors. Federal Register 49:49198 (September 20, 1994). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

EPA. 1996. Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors: Hazardous Waste Combustors Maximum Achievable Emissions Control Technology Proposal. (Proposed Rule) EPA Office of Solid Waste. Federal Register 61: 17358-17536, April 19, 1996. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

EPA. 1997a. Draft Report of Revisions to Hazardous Waste Combustor Database Based on Public Comments Submitted in Response to the January 7, 1997, Notice of Data Availability. Federal Register 62:24213 (May 2, 1997). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

EPA. 1997b. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste (SW-846). Final Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, and III. November 1986; revised May 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Office of Solid Waste.

EPA. 1997c. Revised Technical Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities (Proposed Rule: May 2, 1997: Federal Register 62:5818-5819; per 40 CFR 60, et al. (Appendix A). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Solid Waste.

EPA. 1997d. Draft Technical Support Document for the Hazardous Waste Combustors Maximum Achievable Emissions Control Technology (MACT) Standards (Notice of Data Availability, Volume 1: MACT Evaluation Based on Revised Database) April 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

Evans, M., and M. Hopkins. 1998. Pollution abatement system filter system. Briefing to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Washington, D.C., National Research Council, June 24, 1998.


Fouhy, K. 1992. Legislation scrubs fluegas emissions. Chemical Engineering 99(6): 31-35.


Grant, R., and M. Manes. 1987. Adsorption of binary hydrocarbon gas mixtures on activated carbon. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals 5: 490-497.


Hahn, G.J. 1970. Statistical intervals for a normal population. Part II: formulas, assumptions, some derivations. Journal of Quality Technology 2(4): 195-206.

Hahn, G.J., and W.Q. Meeker. 1991. Statistical Intervals: A Guide for Practitioners. New York: John Wiley and Sons.



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Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration References Asiander, O. 1987. The Swedish Dioxin Moratorium. Pp. 41-50 in Proceedings of the ASCE Dioxin Symposium. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineering. Baier, R.W., and S.W. Weller. 1967. Catalytic and thermal decomposition of isopropyl methyl fluorophosphonate. Industrial Engineering and Chemical Process Design and Development 6(3): 380—385. Brueggendick, H., and F.G. Pohl. 1993. Operating Experience with STEAGS Activated Carbon Processes-a/c/t®-in European Waste Incineration Plants. Pp. 787-794 in Proceedings of the Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh, School of Engineering, Center for Energy Research. Campbell, C. 1998. Interview of Craig Campbell, Tooele Outreach Office, by Alvin Mushkatel, member of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, April 18, 1998. Clarke, M.J. 1991. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW [municipal solid waste] incinerator emissions. Pp. 975-994 in Proceedings of the International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Air and Waste Management Association. Cohen, A.C., Jr. 1959. Simplified estimators for the normal distribution when samples are singly censored or truncated. Technometrics 1(3): 217-237. EG&G (EG&G Defense Materials, Inc.). 1997. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF), RCRA Agent Trial Burn Report for the Liquid Incinerator System #2 [LIC/GB]. Prepared for Southern Research Institute, October 27, 1997. Tooele, Utah: EG&G Defense Materials, Inc. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Associated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and-Dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs): 1989 Update. EPA/625/3-89/016. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum. EPA. 1991. Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces. 40 CFR 266, Subpart H. Effective August 21, 1991. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. EPA. 1994. Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources: Municipal Waste Combustors. Federal Register 49:49198 (September 20, 1994). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. EPA. 1996. Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors: Hazardous Waste Combustors Maximum Achievable Emissions Control Technology Proposal. (Proposed Rule) EPA Office of Solid Waste. Federal Register 61: 17358-17536, April 19, 1996. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. EPA. 1997a. Draft Report of Revisions to Hazardous Waste Combustor Database Based on Public Comments Submitted in Response to the January 7, 1997, Notice of Data Availability. Federal Register 62:24213 (May 2, 1997). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. EPA. 1997b. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste (SW-846). Final Updates I, II, IIA, IIB, and III. November 1986; revised May 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Office of Solid Waste. EPA. 1997c. Revised Technical Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities (Proposed Rule: May 2, 1997: Federal Register 62:5818-5819; per 40 CFR 60, et al. (Appendix A). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Solid Waste. EPA. 1997d. Draft Technical Support Document for the Hazardous Waste Combustors Maximum Achievable Emissions Control Technology (MACT) Standards (Notice of Data Availability, Volume 1: MACT Evaluation Based on Revised Database) April 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Evans, M., and M. Hopkins. 1998. Pollution abatement system filter system. Briefing to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Washington, D.C., National Research Council, June 24, 1998. Fouhy, K. 1992. Legislation scrubs fluegas emissions. Chemical Engineering 99(6): 31-35. Grant, R., and M. Manes. 1987. Adsorption of binary hydrocarbon gas mixtures on activated carbon. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals 5: 490-497. Hahn, G.J. 1970. Statistical intervals for a normal population. Part II: formulas, assumptions, some derivations. Journal of Quality Technology 2(4): 195-206. Hahn, G.J., and W.Q. Meeker. 1991. Statistical Intervals: A Guide for Practitioners. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

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Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration Hartenstein, H.-U. 1992. A fixed bed activated coke/carbon filter as a final gas cleaning stage retrofitted for a hazardous waste incinerator plant—the first 6 months of operating experience. Paper 92-48.C4. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Air and Waste Management Association. Hartenstein, H.-U. 1993. Activated carbon for flue-gas polishing of MWIs (municipal waste incinerators). Pp. 87-105 in Proceedings of an International Specialty Conference, VIP-32. Hartenstein, H.-U. 1994. The retrofit of the MWC ROTEB in Rotterdam, Holland, with a modern flue gas cleaning system including an activated char adsorption unit. Pp. 1-10 in National Waste Processing Conference Proceedings, Boston, Massachusetts , June 5-8, 1994. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Air and Waste Management Association. Hass, C.N., and P.A. Sheff. 1990. Estimation of averages in truncated samples. Environmental Science and Technology 24: 912-929. Hopkins, M. 1998a. PAS filter system (PFS) analysis. Briefing by Martin Hopkins, Operations Team, Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Disposal, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, September 23, 1998, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Hopkins, M. 1998b. Bringing the PAS filter evaluation to closure. Briefing by Martin Hopkins, Operations Team, Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Disposal, to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, September 23, 1998, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Hopkins, M. 1998c. Teleconference between Martin Hopkins, Operations Team, Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Disposal, with the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program carbon filter working group, November 2, 1998. Karwacki, C.J., J.J. Mahle, J.H. Buchanan, T.E. Rosso, and L.C. Buettner. 1998. Summary report on agent offgassing from activated carbon filters. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Chemical Biological Filtration Team. Mitretek Systems. 1996. Evaluation of the Pollution Abatement Filter System for Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Methodology for Evaluating Risks. MTR-1996-3. December 1996. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization . Mitretek Systems. 1997. Pollution Abatement System Carbon Filter Simulation Model Development. January 1997. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. National Safety Council. 1997. Accident Facts, 1997 Edition. Itasca, Ill.: National Safety Council. New York State Legislative Commission on Solid Waste Management. 1986. New York Moratorium. Albany, N.Y.: New York State. NORIT. 1996. NORIT Americas Inc., Activated Carbons for the Removal of Mercury and Dioxin from Flue Gas. Paper obtained at Norit booth at ASME SWPD, 4/1/96. Norit Americas Inc., 1050 Crown Pointe Parkway, Suite 1500, Atlanta, Georgia 30338. (800) 641-9245. NRC (National Research Council). 1984. Disposal of Chemical Munitions and Agents. Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1991. Summary of Workshop on the Pollution Abatement System of the Chemical Agent Demilitarization System. May 15-17, 1991. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council Board on Army Science and Technology. NRC. 1992. Letter report on review of the choice and status of incineration for destruction of the chemical stockpile. June 15, 1992. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council Board on Army Science and Technology. NRC. 1993. Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1996. Public Involvement and the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Letter Report, October 1996). Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council Board on Army Science and Technology. NRC. 1997a. Risk Assessment and Management at Deseret Chemical Depot and the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Board on Army Science and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1997b. Review of Acute Human-Toxicity Estimates for Selected Chemical-Warfare Agents. Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Parsons. 1995. Value Engineering Report. PFS Alternative Configuration Study. Prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company (Task B-11G1) for the U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, September 1995. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Prakash, J., N. Nirmalakhandan, and R.E. Speece. 1994. Prediction of activated carbon adsorption isotherms for organic vapors. Environmental Science and Technology 28: 1403-1409. PMCD (Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization). 1989. 5X Demonstration Review and Decontamination. Briefings by Barbara A. Kuryk, chief, Process Development Branch, to Vernon N. Houk, assistant surgeon general and director, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, March 27, 1989. Ruthven, D.M. 1984. Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption Processes. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Schüller, H.-P. 1994. Nachrüstung eines Gegenstromadsorbers. Pp. 536-543 in Thermische Abfallbehandlung by Karl Joachim Thomé-Kozmiensky. Berlin: EF-Verlag Für Energie- und Umwelttechnik GMBH. Taylor, J.K. 1990. Statistical Techniques for Data Analysis. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishing. Tien, Chi. 1995. Adsorption Calculations and Modeling. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann.

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Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration U.S. Army. 1994a. Evaluation of National Research Council Furnace Pollution Abatement System, Subtask No.1 (June 24, 1994). Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1994b. Evaluation of Potential Applications of Pollution Abatement Systems for Chemical Demilitarization Facilities (June 24, 1994). Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1994c. Comparison of Alternative Pollution Abatement Systems for New and Existing Chemical Demilitarization Facilities (June 24, 1994). Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1994d. U.S. Army's Alternative Demilitarization Technology Report to Congress, April 11, 1994. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1996a. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment. SAIC-96/2600. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1996b. Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Phase 1 Quantitative Risk Assessment. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1997a. A Guide to Risk Management Policy and Activities. January 1997. 176-009. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1997b. Specification for Pollution Abatement System (PAS) Filter Units, CSDP/Specs/F2B/UMrDF. (In accordance with ECP UM-193). Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1997c. Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Phase 1 Quantitative Risk Assessment. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998a. Risk Assessment of the Pollution Abatement Filter System for the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (ANCDF). Prepared by Mitretek Systems. August 1998. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998b. Draft Risk Assessment of the Pollution Abatement Filter System for the Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (UMCDF). Prepared by Mitretek Systems. May 1998. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998c. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, UMCDF Alternative DFS Concepts. Contract DACA 87-66-C-0084. Prepared by Parsons Company. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998d. Letter Report from the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization—Implementing the Change Management Process: Validation of the Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Pollution Abatement Filter System Implementation, September 1998. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998e. Evaluation of the Pollution Abatement Filter System for Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Methodology for Evaluating Risks. January 1998. MTR-1996-3. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998f. PMCSD Change Management Process Plan. November 1998 Final; July 1998 Draft. Prepared by the U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998g. Letter Report from the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization—Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Pollution Abatement Filter System Summary of Risk Assessment Results, October 1998 . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998h. The Change Management Process to Accompany the Guide to Risk Management Policy and Activities, May 1998. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1998i. Public Involvement Plan for the Chemical Stock-pile Disposal Program Change Management Process. (Undated). Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Utah DSHW (Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste). 1996. Tooele Chemical Demilitarization Facility Screening Risk Assessment. No. UT5210090002. Salt Lake City, Utah: Department of Environmental Quality. Ward, R. 1998. Personal communication from J. Richard Ward, Chief Scientist, Product Manager for Alternative Technologies and Approaches, to Walter May, member of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, November 9, 1998.