Appendix C
Commercial Application of Carbon Bed Filters to Combustion Sources

Carbon bed filters are widely used in the chemical processing industry to recover low-concentration chemicals from dilute gas streams. They are also used to control volatile organic emissions from production processes, like rotogravure printing and fiberglass and plastics forming. In the mid-1980s, carbon bed filters were first used in large combustion sources, like coal-fired utility boilers, hazardous waste incinerators, and municipal waste combustors, to polish effluent-gas streams. They are used to remove residual sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, mercury, organic solvents, and semivolatile organics like dioxins and furans from exhaust-gas streams. Testing indicates that the depth-filter function of the activated carbon fill separates metals and organics associated with solid particulates. Table C-1 is a partial listing of commercial activated

TABLE C-1 Partial List of Activated Carbon Bed Filter Installations

Location

Type of Facility/Incinerator

Number and Capacity of Filters

Start-up Year

Lausward, Dusseldorf, FRG

coal power plant

8 × 250,000 nm3/h

1989

Flingern, Dusseldorf, FRG

coal power plant

2 × 250,000 nm3/h

1989

Garth, Dusseldorf, FRG

coal power plant

1 × 65,000 nm3/h

1988

Energiever Sorgung Oberfranken,

coal power plant

1 × 650,000 nm3/h

1990

Arzberg, FRG

 

1 × 45,000 nm3/h

1989

Hoechst, Hoescht, FRG

coal power plant

1 × 1,330,000 nm3/h

1990

Zavin-Dordrecht, NL

medical waste

1 × 13,750 sm3/h

1991

Universitastsheizwerk, Heidelberg, FRG

medical waste

2 × 6,500 sm3/h

1991

AVR Chemi, NL

chemical waste

1 × 77,000 sm3/h

1992

AVT-Rotterdam, NL

municipal waste

6 × 155,000 sm3/h

1992/93a

RWE-Energle, Essen, FRG

municipal waste

4 × 168,000 sm3/h

1995

WAV, Wels, Austria

municipal waste

1 × 55,000 sm3/h

1995

RHE, Mannheim, FRG

municipal waste

2 × 206,000 sm3/h

1995

RZR Herten, AGR Essen, FRG

industrial waste

2 × 70,000 sm3/h

1991/96a

AVI ROTEB, Rotterdam, NL

municipal waste

4 × 75,000 sm3/h

1993

Rozenburg, DTO-8, AVR Chemi Rotterdam, NL

hazardous waste

1 × 70,000 sm3/h

1994

MVA Neu-Ulm, FRG

municipal waste

2 × 57,000 sm3/h

1996

MVA Stapelfeld, Hamburg, FRG

municipal waste

2 × 120,000 sm3/h

1996

MHKW Kassel, FRG

municipal waste

2 × 70,000 sm3/h

1996

AEZ Kreis Wesel, FRG

municipal waste

2 × 70,000 sm3/h

1996

HKW Nord MK4, Mannheim, FRG

municipal waste

1 × 195,000 sm3/h

1997

RVA Bohlen, FRG

hazardous waste

1 × 40,000 sm3/h

1998

MVA Koln, FRG

municipal waste

4 × 95,000 sm3/h

1998

a Multiple start-up years indicate plant expansions.



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Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration Appendix C Commercial Application of Carbon Bed Filters to Combustion Sources Carbon bed filters are widely used in the chemical processing industry to recover low-concentration chemicals from dilute gas streams. They are also used to control volatile organic emissions from production processes, like rotogravure printing and fiberglass and plastics forming. In the mid-1980s, carbon bed filters were first used in large combustion sources, like coal-fired utility boilers, hazardous waste incinerators, and municipal waste combustors, to polish effluent-gas streams. They are used to remove residual sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, mercury, organic solvents, and semivolatile organics like dioxins and furans from exhaust-gas streams. Testing indicates that the depth-filter function of the activated carbon fill separates metals and organics associated with solid particulates. Table C-1 is a partial listing of commercial activated TABLE C-1 Partial List of Activated Carbon Bed Filter Installations Location Type of Facility/Incinerator Number and Capacity of Filters Start-up Year Lausward, Dusseldorf, FRG coal power plant 8 × 250,000 nm3/h 1989 Flingern, Dusseldorf, FRG coal power plant 2 × 250,000 nm3/h 1989 Garth, Dusseldorf, FRG coal power plant 1 × 65,000 nm3/h 1988 Energiever Sorgung Oberfranken, coal power plant 1 × 650,000 nm3/h 1990 Arzberg, FRG   1 × 45,000 nm3/h 1989 Hoechst, Hoescht, FRG coal power plant 1 × 1,330,000 nm3/h 1990 Zavin-Dordrecht, NL medical waste 1 × 13,750 sm3/h 1991 Universitastsheizwerk, Heidelberg, FRG medical waste 2 × 6,500 sm3/h 1991 AVR Chemi, NL chemical waste 1 × 77,000 sm3/h 1992 AVT-Rotterdam, NL municipal waste 6 × 155,000 sm3/h 1992/93a RWE-Energle, Essen, FRG municipal waste 4 × 168,000 sm3/h 1995 WAV, Wels, Austria municipal waste 1 × 55,000 sm3/h 1995 RHE, Mannheim, FRG municipal waste 2 × 206,000 sm3/h 1995 RZR Herten, AGR Essen, FRG industrial waste 2 × 70,000 sm3/h 1991/96a AVI ROTEB, Rotterdam, NL municipal waste 4 × 75,000 sm3/h 1993 Rozenburg, DTO-8, AVR Chemi Rotterdam, NL hazardous waste 1 × 70,000 sm3/h 1994 MVA Neu-Ulm, FRG municipal waste 2 × 57,000 sm3/h 1996 MVA Stapelfeld, Hamburg, FRG municipal waste 2 × 120,000 sm3/h 1996 MHKW Kassel, FRG municipal waste 2 × 70,000 sm3/h 1996 AEZ Kreis Wesel, FRG municipal waste 2 × 70,000 sm3/h 1996 HKW Nord MK4, Mannheim, FRG municipal waste 1 × 195,000 sm3/h 1997 RVA Bohlen, FRG hazardous waste 1 × 40,000 sm3/h 1998 MVA Koln, FRG municipal waste 4 × 95,000 sm3/h 1998 a Multiple start-up years indicate plant expansions.

OCR for page 70
Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration TABLE C-2 Performance of Activated Carbon Bed Filters SOPC Control Efficiency (%) Detection Limit Mercury 90-99.9   Particulates ~100 < 1 mg/dnm3 @ 11% O2 Metals ~100 < 2-200 μg/dnm3 @ 11% O2 SO2/HCl ~100 < 2-6 mg/dnm3 @ 11% O2 Dioxins/furans 99-99.9+   Polychlorinated phenols 94.7-99.9   Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 61.7-97.9   Total hydrocarbons 41.7-96.2   Polychlorinated chlorobenzenes 97.5-9+   carbon bed filters. The list includes 22 facilities and 52 carbon bed filters. Capacities range from about a quarter of the size needed for individual baseline system incineration units to more than 50 times the required capacity. The published emissions control performance for activated carbon bed filters is summarized in Table C-2. Removal efficiencies are reported as greater than a specified percentage because the outlet concentrations are below the detection limits for existing measurement techniques.