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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities GEWEX—CLIVAR Coordination of U.S. Activities A brief report from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Panel Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources National Research Council November 1998 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Contract No. 50-DKNA-7-90052. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the above-mentioned agency. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities GLOBAL ENERGY AND WATER CYCLE EXPERIMENT (GEWEX) PANEL Members SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN (Chair), University of Arizona, Tucson WILFRIED BRUTSAERT, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York RICHARD E. CARBONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado JAMES W. HURRELL, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado SHAFIQUL ISLAM, University of Cincinnati, Ohio EUGENIA KALNAY, University of Oklahoma, Norman DEVENDRA LAL, University of California at San Diego / Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, University of Washington, Seattle JOHN O. ROADS, University of California at San Diego / Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla RICHARD D. ROSEN, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM B. ROSSOW, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York EDWARD J. ZIPSER, Texas A&M University, College Station NRC Staff PETER A. SCHULTZ, Study Director TENECIA A. BROWN, Senior Program Assistant
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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities CLIMATE RESEARCH COMMITTEE Members THOMAS R. KARL (Chair), National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina ROBERT E. DICKINSON (Vice Chair), University of Arizona, Tucson MAURICE BLACKMON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado BERT BOLIN, Osterskar, Sweden JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara JAMES GIRAYTYS, Consultant, Winchester, Virginia JAMES E. HANSEN, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York PHILIP E. MERILEES, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network, Palisades, New York S. ICHTIAQUE RASOOL, University of New Hampshire, Durham STEVEN W. RUNNING, University of Montana, Missoula EDWARD S. SARACHIK, University of Washington, Seattle WILLIAM H. SCHLESINGER, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina KARL E. TAYLOR, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California ANNE M. THOMPSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland Ex Officio Members DOUGLAS G. MARTINSON, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York W. LAWRENCE GATES, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of Arizona, Tucson PETER J. WEBSTER, University of Colorado, Boulder NRC Staff PETER A. SCHULTZ, Program Officer TENECIA A. BROWN, Senior Program Assistant
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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE Members ERIC J. BARRON (Co-Chair), Pennsylvania State University, University Park JAMES R. MAHONEY (Co-Chair), International Technology Corporation, Washington, D.C. SUSAN K. AVERY, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder LANCE F. BOSART, State University of New York, Albany MARVIN A. GELLER, State University of New York, Stony Brook DONALD M. HUNTEN, University of Arizona, Tucson JOHN IMBRIE, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts THOMAS J. LENNON, WSI Corp., Billerica, Massachusetts MARK R. SCHOEBERL, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland JOANNE SIMPSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland NIEN DAK SZE, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts NRC Staff ELBERT W. (JOE) FRIDAY, Jr., Director H. FRANK EDEN, Senior Program Officer DAVID H. SLADE, Senior Program Officer LAURIE S. GELLER, Program Officer PETER A. SCHULTZ, Program Officer DIANE L. GUSTAFSON, Administrative Assistant ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate TENECIA A. BROWN, Senior Program Assistant CARTER FORD, Project Assistant
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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES Members GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle B. JOHN GARRICK, PLG, Inc., St. George, Utah THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California NRC Staff ROBERT HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst
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GEWEX—CLIVAR: Coordination of U.S. Activities ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: DAVID BATTISTI, University of Washington, Seattle RICHARD M. GOODY, Harvard University (emeritus), Cambridge, Massachusetts GEORGE HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DOUGLAS MARTINSON, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York PETER RAVEN, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis KEVIN TRENBERTH, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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