The NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES is a private, non-profit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.

The NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine.

THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA is an independent, non-profit organization that was incorporated by an act of Parliament in 1883. Its primary objective is to promote learning and research in the arts, letters and sciences in Canada. It draws on the knowledge and expertise of its Fellows to recognize and honour distinguished accomplishments, to promote public understanding of scholarly, scientific, technical and cultural issues, and to foster the free circulation of ideas through international exchanges and participation in scientific and cultural programs.

Founded in 1985, under the auspices of the Royal Society of Canada, the CANADIAN GLOBAL CHANGE PROGRAM brings together scientists and other specialists from many disciplines in the sciences and humanities to plan interdisciplinary research, assess the significance of this research in the policy context and communicate the implications to its target audiences. The Canadian Global Change Program is characterized by its independent, non-governmental status, its combination of the natural and human dimensions of global change, its access to worldwide networks of collaborating organizations, its emphasis on issues that have universal relevance throughout the globe, and its access to Canadian capability that can be brought to bear on these issues.

The MEXICAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES is an independent, non-profit organization created in 1959. Its main objectives are the preservation of the integrity and high quality of original scientific research in Mexico. Its main activities are to promote public understanding of scientific, social and humanistic issues; to improve educational standards in science and technology; to recognize outstanding accomplishments in research; to organize specialized sessions on the frontiers of science, and to provide expert advice to government and private officials.

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