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188 RE VIE WOFALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES and the technology provider expects that this solid waste stream will be disposed of off site. The large amount of soot generated in the thermal-reduction batch processor could lead to buildups in gas recirculation paths, which could resmct throughput and require additional maintenance to clear the gas path. Sampling andFAna1tysis Sampling and analysis requirements appear to be reasonably well known for this integrated process. Easy evaluations of the composition of the hydrolysate can be made from the hydrolysate feed tanks to the SCWO. Similar observations can be made for solid wastes that cannot be released until agent concentrations in adjacent gas spaces are below allowable levels. The technology provider will also have to ensure that agent does not condense, adsorb, or otherwise accumulate on the internal surfaces of the GPCR off- gas hold-test-release tanks, where it would not be detected in the gas analysis but could subsequently revaporize upon depressunzation and venting to the boiler fuel system. (The same problem exists for all gaseous hold-test-release systems that are subject to significant pressure variations.) Maturity Disassembly Process. The LMIDS uses much of the baseline disassembly process that has been proven at the Johnston Atoll and Tooele, Utah, demilitarization facilities. Modifying the process to include a wash-out step is based loosely on ton-container wash- out tests for the Aberdeen and Newport sites; however, the specific design modifications have not been tested. One of Lockheed Martin's partners, Aeroj et, has more than 30 years of experience with hydromining rocket propellants. Interfaces between the disassembly process and downstream processes may limit the throughput because the reliability of the remotely operated handling equipment used for the interfaces could be difficult to maintain. Some of this equipment is new or has never been used in the harsh environment of caustic hydrolysis processes. Materials selection and design of this equipment will be very important. Agent Hydrolysis. Neutralization is a proven technology for the deactivation of chemical agents (see Appendix D), and agent hydrolysis processes for HD and VX are being implemented at Aberdeen and Newport. Hydrolysis for GB has been done on a large scale at Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Therefore, the hydrolysis of agent is a mature and well tested technology that requires simple engineering and control. Energet;ics Hydrolysis. Several issues remain to be accessed about the technology provider's implementation of hydrolysis for energetics. I. The caustic hydrolysis step is intended to dissolve the aluminum fuze and expose the energetic materials. The dissolution of aluminum will result in an exothermic generation of hydrogen gas that will bubble out of the aqueous alkaline solution. The production rate of hydrogen and the release rate of thermal energy wall have to be monitored and controlled to ensure that there is no possibility of ignition. Also, an autocatalytic redox reaction could occur when

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APPENDIX A Description of Assembled Chemical Weapons The U.S. chemical weapons stockpile is made up of a variety of munitions that serve different military func- tions. This study is concerned with assessing technolo- gies to destroy munitions that contain both chemical agent and energetic materials (i.e., propellant and/or explosive charges) in an assembled configuration ,. . . . a, finance, Designated as assembled chemical weapons). There are three basic classes of assembled chemical weapons: (1) projectiles and mortars, (2) rockets, and (3) land mines. Each class is described below in greater detail. The specifications for the munitions were taken from the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment ~ . ~ ~ 7 AT T <4 ~ KequestJor Proposal I.. Army, 1997) and are sum- marized in Table A- 1. PROJECTILES AND MORTARS Both projectiles and mortars are shells that are fired from guns or cannons. They have roughly cylindrical steel bodies with tapered noses and a hollow cylindri- cal tube, known as the burster well, running down the center of the shell. This tube holds the burster, a high- explosive charge that disperses the chemical agent upon detonation. The liquid agent itself is contained in the annular region between the burster well and the shell wall. The nose of the shell consists of either an explosive fuze or a lifting ring, depending on the type of munition. Mortars, which are typically muzzle loaded, are intended for shorter ranges than Projectiles . a. . .. . ... --my -- r--~- ~ anct are direct at lower velocities and higher trajectories. Definite their differences hecauLse nrniectileLs and mor 105-mm Projectiles The 105-mm projectile is 105 mm in diameter (just over 4 inches) and has a mass of 16 to 18 kg. As shown in Table A-1, there are two types of 105-mm projec- tiles the M60, which contains HD, and the M360, which contains GB (see Figure Ado. The burster for the M60 is smaller than for the M360 because HD has a tendency to burn rather than disperse if the charge is too powerful. The 105-mm projectiles are stored with their fuzes attached. 155-mm Projectiles There are five types of 155-mm projectiles in the chemical stockpile the M121, the M121A1, the M104, the M110, and the M122 (see Table Ado. All of these are 155-mm in diameter (just over 6 inches) and have a mass of 42 to 45 kg; the type of chemical agent (GB, VX, H. or HD) varies, as does the type and amount of burster material (Composition B4 or tetrytol). The bursters for HD (mustard) rounds are much smaller than those for the nerve agent rounds. A cutaway of the M121 is shown in Figure A-2. The 155-mm projectiles are stored with lifting rings in place of fuzes. 8-inch Projectiles The 8-inch (20.32 cm) projectile, designated the M426, has a mass of more than 90 kg and contains either GB or VX (see Figure Aid. Like the 155-mm tars are comparable in design and construction, the ap- projectile, the M426 is stored with a lifting ring in place proach to their destruction is also similar. of a fuze. 189 .

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190 ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEMILITARIZATION OF ASSEMBLED CHEMICAL WEAPONS TABLE A-1 Assembled Chemical Weapons in the U.S. Stockpile Munition Type TotalMass (kg) Agent Agent Mass (kg) Burster Explosive Burster Mass (kg) 105-mm projectile M60 17.6 HD 1.4 tetrytol 0.12 M360 16.1 GB 0.73 tetrytoV Comp B4 0.50/0.50 155-mm projectile M121 44.1 GB 2.9 tetrytol 1.2 M121A1 44.9 GB/VX 2.9/2.7 Comp B4 1.1 M104 43.1 H/HD 5.3/5.3 tetrytol 0.19 M110 42.9 H/HD 5.3/5.3 tetrytol 0.19 M122 44.1 GB 2.9 tetrytol 1.2 4.2-in mortar M2 11.3 HD/HT 2.7/2.6 tetryl 0.064 M2A1 11.3 HD 2.7 tetryl 0.064 8-in projectile M426 90.3 GB/VX 6.6 Comp B4 3.2 Rocketa M55 25.9 GB/VX 4.9/4.5 Comp B./ tetrytol 1.5/1.5 Land mine M23 10.3 VX 4.8 CompB4 0.37 aThe MSS rocket also contains 8.75 kg of M28 double-base propellant. Source: Adapted from U.S. Army, 1997. 4.2-inch Mortars The two types of 4.2-inch (105-mm) mortars in the chemical stockpile are the M2 (filled with HD or HT) and the M2A1 (filled with HD), both of which have a mass of 11.3 kg. These rounds are similar to 105-mm projectiles, except the outer shell wall is thinner, and there are internal vanes in the agent cavity (see Figure A-4. The 4.2-inch mortars are stored with fuzes in place. M55 ROCKETS A rocket is an airborne weapon propelled by fuel and oxidizer, which is carried along during flight. The only rocket in the chemical stockpile is the 115-mm Burs er well Burster Body \ / / Fuze FIGURE A-1 105-mm M360 projectile. Source: U.S. Army, 1988. diameter M55 (see Figure A-5~. This rocket is 1.98 m long and has a mass of nearly 26 kg. It consists of two sections: (1) an aluminum-alloy warhead section, which contains the chemical agent, two bursters, and the fuze; and (2) a steel motor section, which contains the propellant grain, the igniter assembly, and the nozzle and fins. The chemical agent is either GB or VX, and the bursters are either Composition B (Comp B) or tetrytol. The propellant is double-base M28 (nitroglycerin/nitrocellulose). The rocket is stored in a shipping and firing tube made of fiberglass-reinforced resin that can contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An indexing ring on the outside of the tube Fuze adapter Burster well \ Lifting plug \ 1 L ~. , - \ Bo dy Agent Gasket FIGURE A-2 155-mm M121 projectile. Source: U.S. Army, 1988.

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APPENDIX A Body Agent Adapter 191 S ik Propellant r Burster I Vane r Burster well Lifting plug Burster well FIGURE A-3 8-inch M426 projectile. Source: U.S. Army, 1988. M28 propellant grain Thin-wall aluminum Fu: ~ FIGURE A-5 115-mm M55 rocket. Source: SAIC, 1996. near the front (fuze) end of the rocket identifies the front of the rocket in the shipping and firing tube. Alu- minum caps seal the ends of the tube. M23 LAND MINES A land mine is an explosive device that is usually concealed just below the surface of the ground. When the mine is disturbed, it detonates, causing damage to nearby objects and personnel. The chemical stockpile contains only one type of land mine, designated the M23. This cylindrical mine, shown in Figure A-6 (33 cm in diameter and 13 cm high), is filled with VX and weighs 10.3 kg without the fuze. The M23 contains several explosive components, including a conical burster (Comp B4; 0.37 kg), a tubular initiator (Comp B4; Ignition T / cartridge ' Obturating HO mechanism FIGURE A-4 4.2-inch M2 mortar. Source: U.S. Army, 1988. Arming plug / Burster tube Booster ~ Belleville storing \ 1 / Burs;er cone \ Al-/ 6\~x 1 Agent 4~ Cal: ~ Torsion spring ~ ~ Main explosive Carrying handle Activator well charge FIGURE A-6 M23 land mine. Source: SAIC, 1996. 0.054 kg), a cylindrical booster (Comp A5; 0.009 kg), and a small booster pellet (tetryl; 0.003 kg). The fuze is packaged separately. REFERENCES SAIC (Science Applications International Corporation). 1996. Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment. SAIC-96/2600, December 1996. Abingdon, Md.: Science Applications International Corporation. U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Program manager for Chemi- cal Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1997. Assessment of Technologies for Assembled Chemical Weapon Demilitarization. Solicitation No. DAAMO1- 97-R-0031, July 28,1997. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command.