IV
ANNEXES



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--> IV ANNEXES

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--> Annex A A Sandia White Paper: Sandia National Laboratories and the Sandia Science and Technology Park44 Sandia National Laboratories The mission of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), whose primary location is in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is contributing to the security of the United States through the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), which ensures the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. Sandia's mission is an evolving one that must be immediately responsive to new and emerging vulnerabilities and threats to the security of the United States. It is a mission that is more challenging in some respects than ever before in the laboratory's 50-year history. In addition, in today's environment of smaller government, Americans want their government to utilize private resources whenever possible and they want to see the benefits of federal research and development extended throughout the U.S. economy. Congress also has encouraged federal laboratories to partner with the private sector. Recently, SNL joined the city of Albuquerque, other local and state entities, and many private organizations and residents in support of the Sandia Science and Technology Park (SSTP), which is planned for a large tract of land immediately adjacent to the laboratory's main facility in Albuquerque. The plans for the park call for a campus-like setting, initially spanning some 285 acres. Fortune 500 companies and entrepreneurs are considering sites in the SSTP, recognizing the value of being close neighbors with other high-technology firms and within easy reach of leading research institutions in the New Mexico Technology Corridor. Potential tenants will be located in the midst of one of the richest scientific research and engineering talent pools in the nation. The park will be served by a 44   This paper was prepared by the Sandia National Laboratories at the request of the National Research Council to provide additional background information about the SSTP initiative.

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--> high-speed, state-of-the-art communications infrastructure designed to facilitate collaboration within the park; with Sandia and other nearby facilities; and with business, research, and academic institutions nationally and internationally. The Sandia Park is designed to enable close collaboration among global corporations, small start-up firms, universities, and other institutions. As great as the opportunities are for industry, close collaboration with the private sector is also of compelling importance to Sandia. This paper first summarizes Sandia's challenging mission and then describes how partnering with leading high-technology corporations, innovative entrepreneurial companies, universities, and other research institutions will enable Sandia to accomplish its mission more effectively than it can in isolation. Sandia and the nation gain from partnerships that enlist private sector skills and resources to address national challenges. At the same time, partnering with Sandia benefits the companies involved and moves new technologies into the marketplace to the advantage of all Americans. The park will bring key institutions into close physical proximity and link them even more closely through advanced high-speed communications and will greatly facilitate collaboration and partnering. The Evolving Mission of Sandia National Laboratories SNL is a multiprogram facility operated by the Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sandia's main location is in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with another important facility in Livermore, California. Sandia conducts broad-based research and development related to nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, and other areas of national need. Sandia's principal mission is to support national defense policies, particularly the Stockpile Stewardship Program, by ensuring that the nation's nuclear weapons meet the highest safety, security, and reliability standards and that the SNL effectively accomplishes the nuclear deterrence policy of the United States. Sandia functions as the systems integrator for the DOE in managing the nuclear weapons stockpile and works also with the U.S. Department of Defense, other federal agencies, other laboratories, and industry to develop technologically superior military weapons. A second aspect of Sandia's national security mission is to reduce U.S. vulnerability to proliferation, threat, or use of weapons of mass destruction, whether nuclear, biological, or chemical. Sandia develops effective responses to emerging threats by applying advanced technologies and systems solutions to problems such as terrorism, hard and deeply buried targets, chemical and biological weapons, information warfare, demining and unexploded ordnance neutralization, and demilitarization. Sandia also helps safeguard nuclear materials in other countries and designs effective systems to monitor nuclear weapons activities.

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--> An additional responsibility of Sandia is to enhance the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's critical infrastructures and address energy and environmental threats and vulnerabilities and dangers to the nation's air and water supplies. Stewardship Historically, Sandia has been responsible for assuring the reliability of nuclear weapons, and, to that end, the lab has relied on world-class science and engineering. This task remains especially critical today, as the United States relies on existing weapons to protect itself and other nations, while fully supporting international agreements that ban nuclear testing and forbid the development of new nuclear weapons. As long as the United States has nuclear weapons, they must be kept secure and reliable. The critical importance of the nuclear SSP was emphasized by Dr. Victor Reis, Assistant Secretary of Defense Programs at DOE, in recent testimony before Congress. His statement emphasized the importance of the SSP as the means by which the nation will assure the safety and reliability of its nuclear deterrent under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Dr. Reis also spoke of the need to maintain modern nuclear laboratory facilities, programs, and capabilities to provide the protection that the United States will require against any future hostile attacks. Noting specific efforts at Sandia and other nuclear weapons laboratories to measure up to the stockpile stewardship responsibility, Dr. Reis called the laboratories "the best in the world . . . better now than they were four years ago because of the enthusiasms and vigor with which they are attacking the stockpile stewardship effort." New Threats and Challenges In spite of the end of the Cold War, nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons have proliferated in recent years among various nations and subnational groups, posing new threats to national security. Consequently, in addition to its nuclear weapons responsibility, Sandia must now also focus on new security threats, terrorism, disruption or sabotage of U.S. information systems, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and more. The United States must monitor possible weapons development activities, however well concealed, and determine how best to prevent harm in the United States and throughout the world. There are other national needs to be addressed. Dependence on other nations for oil could jeopardize U.S. transportation systems if there were a disruption in the oil supply. Overconsumption of energy, in addition to depleting natural resources, could also seriously endanger our natural environment. Efforts to improve energy efficiency have thus become paramount. The federal government has turned to Sandia for help on all of these matters.

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--> Drawing on the Rich Resources of the Private Sector As national security and infrastructure needs have changed in recent years, there has been a dramatic change as well in the public's perception of the appropriate role for the federal government. Rather simplistically, a common view today appears to favor smaller government than has existed in the past, with greater reliance on the private sector to accomplish national goals. Technology Partnerships Between the U.S. Departments of Energy and Defense Since the late 1980s, Congress has been taking specific steps to promote cooperation and partnerships between federal laboratories. Some of the policies that have been undertaken include the Stephenson—Wydler Act that lifted various restrictions and gave federal agencies the authority to participate with the private sector in technology transfer activities; the Bayh—Dole Act that provided specific intellectual property protections for small businesses and nonprofit organizations, primarily universities; the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act that gave government-owned, contractor-operated laboratories the authority to establish ownership of, protect, and license intellectual property; the 1996 Technology Transfer and Advancement Act, also known as the Morella Bill, that gave industry the right to negotiate with federal agencies and national laboratories for some form of exclusivity (field of use) in jointly developed intellectual property; and the 1993 DOE Defense Programs Technology Partnership Program that established a pool of funds to set up Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) for technologies developed jointly by a national laboratory and industry, with defense and commercial applications. The funding pool has varied greatly from a high of $250 million in FY 1995 to $60 million in FY 1998. Shortly after the funding became available, Sandia soon led all other national laboratories in total number and dollar value of partnerships with industry. Sandia's Mission Imperatives Like other federal facilities, Sandia has had budget reductions even as its mission has expanded. Not surprisingly and quite fortunately, Sandia has recognized that partnering with the private sector can leverage enormous resources across a broad spectrum of capabilities. Through hundreds of partnership agreements with industry over the past decade, Sandia has reached out to a rich reser-

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--> voir of private sector technologies that has enabled the laboratory to more effectively meet its continually evolving missions. At the same time, these partnerships have proved valuable to the companies involved, helping them to solve problems that had previously appeared intractable. Partnering has become a valuable way to transfer technologies from defense to commercial applications, with benefits to industry, the economy, and the nation. Some examples below highlight the benefits of Sandia's cooperation with the private sector. Partnerships with Industry High-Performance Computing Many of the challenges engaging Sandia scientists and engineers require analysis of thousands of potential scenarios and many variables associated with each. In place of physical testing, today's research and engineering are rooted in modeling and simulation. The technology that has enabled this transition is high-performance computing. Over the past decade, Sandia has been advancing high-performance computing capabilities and has become a world leader in massively parallel computing. In this approach, a problem is divided into segments, which are then solved by different parts of the computer simultaneously. This strategy has resulted in a tremendous increase in computing speed and power. Partnering with industry has been fundamentally important to the development of high-performance computing at Sandia. In 1995 a team of researchers from Sandia and Intel combined two Paragon supercomputers at Intel's Beaverton, Oregon, facility to set a speed record in massively parallel computing. In 1996 Sandia and Intel broke the teraflops barrier, achieving one trillion calculations per second. The teraflops achievement represents a 1,000-fold increase in computing speed in less than a decade. The increased memory on the teraflops computer is as important as the increased speed. As the world's largest computer memory, it is greater by a factor of 15 than that of Sandia's Intel Paragon computer and greater by a factor of 1,000 than supercomputers developed a decade ago. This greatly increased memory and speed, combined with new software and physical models, enables Sandia to solve a wide range of problems related to the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and problems across a broader range of national security concerns as well. These problems often involve the coupling of many complex physical effects in three dimensions. Examples range from virtual testing of weapons to predicting the effects of aging and assuring the reliability of stockpile materials. Aging studies are especially important because no new weapons are being produced, all underground testing has ceased, and older weapons must remain safe and reliable for many years beyond their original design life.

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--> A new generation of superfast, high-performance computers is emerging, which will help provide the capabilities required to meet future national security demands. Robotics and Intelligent Machines Sandia is a leader in robotics and intelligent systems. These technologies are invaluable for performing difficult, repetitive, and monotonous tasks and, more importantly, tasks that would expose humans to dangerous environments and health hazards. Sandia has designed intelligent systems to dismantle nuclear weapons and explosive components and to remove hazardous materials to storage areas. Intelligent systems are also valuable for surveillance and monitoring of hostile environments under severe conditions and over long periods of time. Partnerships with industry have extended the application of Sandia's intelligent systems technologies into previously unexplored areas, such as microsurgery and science-based aircraft maintenance, and, in general, have strengthened the laboratory's leadership in intelligent systems technologies, an area that is rapidly growing in importance, militarily and commercially. In partnership with automobile manufacturers, Sandia engineers are perfecting the surprisingly intricate and difficult task of transmission assembly; with an eye surgeon, Sandia is helping to develop delicate sensors that will eliminate the effects of microtremors from a surgeon's hands during an operation. By sharing and further developing its own expertise in these areas, Sandia is better able to meet its own critical mission requirements. Relying on a half-century of experience in meeting the daunting tasks of designing, engineering, and dismantling nuclear weapons, and for many years developing systems to clean up and store radioactive waste, the federal government has sought Sandia's assistance in its investigation of crises such as the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City and the 1995 destruction of the federal building in Oklahoma City. Microelectromechanical Machines Microelectromechanical systems are minute devices, some as small as the diameter of a human hair, with features as small as 1/100 the diameter of a hair, that combine mechanical and electrical components in a single system. These devices are useful for a variety of military and commercial applications, including safety locks for nuclear weapons. Sandia's leadership position in this technology must be attributed, in an important way, to collaboration in microelectronics with IBM. In addition to working closely with Sandia on microelectronics technologies over a number of years, IBM also made a major contribution of equipment to Sandia's microelectronics laboratory.

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--> The Goodyear Experience Goodyear is the only remaining U.S.-owned global tire company. According to Goodyear, its partnership with Sandia has produced the most advanced tire technologies in the world. The same technologies have enabled Goodyear to achieve continued success in the global marketplace. The partnership began in 1993, focusing on computational mechanics and advanced materials. These areas were important to Sandia because of its work on nuclear weapons; Goodyear was interested because it needed to improve the quality and performance of its tires. Although not obvious at first, the Sandia—Goodyear partnership has demonstrated that there are areas of significant technology overlap in these very different missions and therefore there is a common interest in working together. The ongoing partnership has proved mutually beneficial, enabling both Sandia and Goodyear to accomplish their missions more effectively. Other examples of technologies pioneered at Sandia that have had important benefits for U.S. industry include the laminar air flow clean room, which is now an essential requirement in virtually every microelectronics manufacturing facility; vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers, which are poised to revolutionize laser communications from fiber-optic telecommunications transmission to office copying machines and cellular telephones; and advanced lithography research, which has established important new milestones in integrated circuit manufacturing. Advantages of Partnerships Partnering with industry has helped Sandia to advance its skills and technologies in many areas; the examples given above illustrate the importance of such partnerships in enabling Sandia to more effectively and efficiently accomplish its national security missions. As Sandia looks to the future, with an expanded mission, reduced federal budgets, and rapidly advancing costly technologies, private sector resources must be drawn upon to complement those of the laboratory itself. Businesses that work with Sandia find world-class facilities and expertise and a businesslike culture derived from more than 50 years of management by two of the nation's leading corporations, AT&T and Lockheed Martin. In addition to the areas mentioned above, Sandia's advanced manufacturing facility and its microelectronics laboratory have been particularly attractive to industry. The rich reservoir of advanced technology and the vast range of knowledge, expertise, and skills at Sandia have been built up over more than half a century with considerable investment by U.S. taxpayers. Although Sandia's technology and skill base have been funded by the government for critical national security purposes, it would be a significant loss to the nation to ignore the far-reaching economic and social benefits that can derive from these resources. Sandia's

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--> efforts to partner with industry is one means of assuring that these economic and social benefits are attained. A Plan for More-Effective Partnering: The Sandia Science and Technology Park Partnering with industry is increasingly necessary for Sandia to accomplish its expanding mission. Such partnerships benefit industry and the U.S. economy as well, bringing defense-related technologies to valuable commercial applications in the private sector. The Sandia Science and Technology Park creates a new research and technology community where opportunities for productive cooperation can develop and flourish. Although the institutions and history of Albuquerque are unique, the idea for a community of laboratories, high-technology corporations, innovative entrepreneurs, universities, and other research institutions is not new. Similar efforts in other parts of the United States have achieved remarkable success. Examples such as the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina, the Silicon Valley Incubator in California, and the Ben Franklin Technology Centers in Pennsylvania underscore the diverse conditions in which the partnership concept has been applied. These facilities are home to many of the country's leading high-technology corporations. They have facilitated extraordinary research and technology achievements across a broad range of areas, with widespread benefits. The Sandia Science and Technology Park in Albuquerque can make its own unique contribution. The plan is singularly creative, representing the first research and technology facility with a leading national laboratory as its hub. The SSTP will bring together interested public and private parties at the local, state, and national levels. It will include world-class high-technology research and manufacturing firms, leading telecommunications and information technology companies, and creative start-up firms. The park's potential is widely recognized, as evidenced by the support of major financial institutions. The SSTP will also benefit from first-rate local and national transportation facilities and state-of-the-art communications. The goal of SSTP is to build a rich and diverse community of highly productive organizations, together with talented people and advanced technology. The people, corporations, and other organizations that occupy the park will create a cluster of technology resources adjacent to Sandia and will be made up of major companies, other laboratories, universities, and a highly skilled work force. The park will be anchored by Sandia National Laboratories, with its world-class stature, and buttressed by other excellent research institutions, which, collectively, invest about $4 billion in research and development annually. These institutions and a technically adept population will create a critical mass of scientific and technical expertise in a setting highly conducive to partnering. Federal, state, and local officials have expressed their unqualified support for the SSTP,

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--> and the DOE has already committed $250,000 to the city of Albuquerque to help fund basic infrastructure construction for the park. What distinguishes Sandia is its dedication to science with the end in mind, a process essential for the laboratory to meet its national security responsibilities. These responsibilities require performance backed by broad-based scientific knowledge, agility, and expertise. To achieve this, Sandia brings together the best qualified scientists and engineers to meet the challenges at hand. More and more, this means working with partners in industry, academia, and other federal laboratories. The establishment of the Sandia Science and Technology Park is an important step in creating such partnerships.