more widely. Land use measures may reduce areawide automobile travel and emissions, but the changes are likely to occur gradually and will have more significant effects if they are implemented in conjunction with pricing measures. Finally, radical advances in vehicle technology could produce cleaner transportation, substantially reducing the level of vehicle emissions.

These more radical solutions are neither new nor easy. Major technological improvements require substantial investment and time to produce results. Changes in pricing or land use policies require significant institutional changes—such as more powerful regional institutions to coordinate areawide pricing schemes and land use strategies—and more public acceptance than has been demonstrated in the past. In the judgment of the committee, however, as long-run alternatives to current policy, they offer better prospects for reconciling economic and environmental goals.




U.S. Department of Transportation


Environmental Protection Agency


National Research Council

Apogee Research, Inc. 1994. Costs and Effectiveness of Transportation Control Measures (TCMs): A Review and Analysis of the Literature. National Association of Regional Councils, Bethesda, Md.

DOT and EPA. 1993. Clean Air Through Transportation: Challenges in Meeting National Air Quality Standards. Aug.

Nizich, S.V., T.C. McMullen, and D.C. Misenheimer. 1994. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900–1993. EPA-454/R-94-027. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, N.C., Oct., 314 pp.

NRC. 1994. Special Report 242: Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period Fees to Relieve Traffic Congestion, Volumes 1 and 2. Transportation Research Board and Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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