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INTRODUCTION The National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) has been in existence within the National Research Council (NRC) since 1951, when it was chartered by the National Academy of Sciences as the Metallurgical Advisory Board. The Board had previously existed during World War II within the War Department. In 1954 the name was changed to Materials Advisory Board, and the current name was adopted in 1969 to reflect an expanded role in the assessment of all materials issues of national concern. The principal function of NMAB is Be advancement of materials science and engineering in the national interest. Specifically, the Board undertakes studies to define technical problems and opportunities of relevance to government, industry, and academe; to identify potential solutions; and to stimulate appropriate action. These studies cover a wide range of subjects from broad policy issues to a relatively narrow focus on leading-edge technologies. NMAB's scope of activity covers He entire life cycle of materials from their origin at the resource level, their synthesis and processing Trough Weir application in society, to their eventual disposal or recycling back into the materials cycle. Most often, studies undertaken by OMAN are sponsored by government agencies as a part of the traditional advisory services performed by the National Research Council. The National Materials Advisory Board is an operational unit of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and is governed by a group of men and women who are recognized experts in the science and technology of materials. Members are appointed for three-year terms, with approximately one-third of the membership appointed each year, and are selected from a wide 1

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2 NMAB Catalog spectrum of materials science and engineering disciplines. This results in an interdisciplinary structure that, together with the close cooperation of liaison representatives appointed by government agencies, makes NMAB responsive to rapidly changing federal needs. Studies undertaken by NMAB are carried out by committees of experts in their respective fields who are appointed in accordance with the procedures of the National Research Council. Committee members are chosen from industry, academe, research institutes, and government on the basis of expertise in the relevant subject matter. Appointments are made by the NRC to provide a balanced spectrum of disciplines as well as institutional and other factors, such as producer and consumer, technical and management, supply and demand, and other elements important to a particular study. NMAB publishes a newsletter that describes studies under way and those recently completed as well as providing other information about NMAB and the National Research Council. Persons wishing to receive the newsletter distribution list should contact the board at the address shown on page 5. For each NMAB study, a final report is published that contains the committee's findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Reports usually include a review of the state of the art, critical analyses of data related to problem areas and opportunities, and recommended solutions. Except for reports that contain certain distribution restrictions (e.g., security classification and export control regulations), results of studies are made available to the public through normal channels without restriction. Reports are usually distributed to the sponsoring agencies, to other government agencies having an interest in the subject, and to a distribution list assembled by Be sponsoring agencies. A limited number of copies are also available from NMAB free of charge after a report has been issued. The National Academy Press often prints additional copies of a report and offers them for sale to recover costs. This catalog is published to acquaint interested parties with recent NMAB studies that have been conducted and reports that are available. NMAB reports issued in the past 10 years are listed. If NMAB's supply of free copies is exhausted, reports can be obtained from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), or the National Academy Press (NAP) (reports with ISBN numbers can be obtained from NAP). Instructions for

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Introduction 3 ordering reports from all sources are given on page 5. Availability of a report can be confirmed by calling or writing any of these sources directly. Reports for which distribution is limited under existing laws may be obtained by individuals by applying to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). Requirements are U.S. citizenship and a "need-to-know" certified by a government contracting office. Alternatively, the reports may be requested from the monitor of a government contract, who can request them directly from DTIC or NMAB. Individuals or companies win no government contract may request reports from ARPA/TIO, 3701 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203, by letter signed by an administrative official certifying that the report will be used only by the individual, who must be a U.S. citizen, and that it will not be passed on to any non-U.S. ~ citizen.

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