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NMAB REPORTS NMAB-482-1 NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIRLINE PASSENGER SECURITY SCREENING: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES The screening of passengers in airports for metallic objects (weapons and other dangerous articles) is accepted as necessary throughout the world. However, these screening technologies cannot detect sophisticated non-metallic weapons, plastic explosives, and other dangerous materials. This report briefly reviews the technical maturity and effectiveness of automated instrumental methods currently under consideration by the Federal Aviation Aclrninistration for screening passengers and assesses those aspects of each method that may cause concern regarding health risks (e.g., radiation levels), privacy, and traveler comfort. The report also considers ways to implement those methods and discusses key factors for implementation. (1996, in press) NMAB480 HIGH-PUR~YCHROMlUM METAL: SUPPLYISSUES FOR GAS-TURBINE SUPERALLOYS This report focuses on the availability of high-purity chromium metal used in superalloys for aircraft gas-turbine engines. The report examines the health of the domestic chromium-metal industry, the capability and reliability of foreign chromium-metal suppliers, projections of material needs for the future, economic and security benefits that derive from having a domestic supplier base, alternative methodologies (and research and development opportunities) for producing high- 7

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8 MlL9B Catalog purity chromium metal, and potential strategies for maintaining a core domestic capability for high-purity chromium metal. (1995, 81 pp., available from National Materials Advisory Board) NMAB479 EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM AGING OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES USING ACCELERATED TEST METHODS This report evaluates approaches and analytical methods for using accelerated tests to characterize and predict long-term durability of materials and structures that are subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loads. The report reviews current methods of environmental aging and relationships among microstructural features, thermomechanical materials properties, structural properties, and life- prediction. The report provides an overview of expected long-term exposure effects on structures and materials of future high-performance aircraft such as the High Speed Civil Transport, recommends improved accelerated testing approaches and analytical techniques, and identifies research needed to develop and validate these approaches. (1996, 65 pp., available from National Materials Advisory Board) NMAB478 CURRENCY FEATURES FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED PEOPLE There are an estimated 3.7 million people in the United States who are visually disabled; about 200,000 are blind. In addition, more than 9 million Americans have milder forms of visual impairment. The United States paper currency challenges people of low vision to distinguish among denominations because all bills are identical in size and color. The report defines requirements currency features should have to be usable by the visually impaired, assesses candidate features, and identifies R&D needs and future directions. The report recommends features that could readily be implemented. (1995, 137 pp., available from the National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-05194-0, and the NRC

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NMAB Reports 9 Homepage ht~:/www.nas.edu/nap/online/currency/. The Executive Summary is available in Braille from He Lighthouse, Inc., 212-808 0077) NMAB477-1 ~ AND SMOKE RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT DESIGN This report identifies promising materials technology, component design issues, and material performance parameters that can lead to improved fire- and smoke- resistant materials for aircraft interiors. The report provides guidance to the Federal Aviation Administration's long-term research in fire-resistant materials. The committee conducted a technical conference to facilitate review and assessment of current research trends. The proceedings of this conference are available as a separate report (NMAB 477-2~. (1995, 81 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-05389-7) NMAB-477-2 IMPROVED FIRE- AND SMOKE-RESISTANT MATERIALS FOR COMMERCL\L AIRCRAFT INTERIORS: PROCEEDINGS As part of the study on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Design, the committee conducted a conference with international participation on November 8-10, 1994, at the National Academy of Sciences. The conference included a series of invited papers that covered the Federal Aviation Administration's fire safety mission, aircraft fire scenarios, fundamental fire properties of materials, aircraft cabin materials, testing and evaluation of materials, future candidate materials, design and in-service performance of aircraft interiors, and manufacture of interior components. The conference included four concurrent workshop sessions on toxicity, fire performance parameters, drivers for materials development, and new materials technology. The results of the conference were used by He study committee in developing He recommendations and conclusions for their final report (NMAB-477-1~. (1995, 258 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-05336-6)

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10 NMAB-476 NEW MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTS NUMB Catalog This report considers the effects of new materials on the long term safety performance of future advanced civil aircraft. Since development of advanced aircraft depends on improvements to materials, a thorough understanding of the long term properties of new materials, including anticipated failure modes and required maintenance procedures, is critical to assure reliability and safety over the life of the aircraft. The report identifies candidate materials and structures for advanced subsonic aircraft and factors influencing application decisions. Key design, characterization, and maintenance issues are discussed that are critical for the introduction of advanced materials and structural concepts into future aircraft. (1996, 100 pp., available from National Academy Press and National Materials Advisory Board) NMAB~75 HIGH-TEMPERATURE COATINGS FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES Turbine operating temperatures in advanced engines will continue to increase in order to meet the need for greater performance and higher operating efficiencies. However, longer operating lifetimes and reduced emissions are also high priorities. As a result of these conflicting needs, high-temperature structures will require advanced coating systems. This report assesses the state of the art in turbine coatings, discusses various application needs and trends, reviews the different types of high-temperature structures, summarizes the key engineering design considerations, presents He near term trends and opportunities for coating technologies, and offers new concepts for future coating systems. (1996 in press)

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MOB Reports NMAB-474 MATERIALS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES 11 Materials are a key enabling technology for high-temperature semiconductor devices. This report includes all current candidate materials for chips and substrates, including silicon-on-insulator, silicon carbide, diamond, and nitride technologies. National and international efforts in high-temperature semiconductor materials are assessed. The report also summarizes the key processing and packaging issues and addresses the materials requirements for high-temperature device operation. Future research priorities are recommended, and additional potential applications are suggested. (1995, 134 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-05335-8) NMAB-473 MICROWAVE PROCESSING OF MATERIALS Microwaves in industrial materials processing can provide a versatile tool for processing many types of materials under a wide range of conditions. However, microwave processing is complex and multidisciplinary in nature and involves a wide range of conditions. A high degree of technical and other (e.g., economic) knowledge is required for determining how, when, and where to use microwaves most effectively and when not to use them. This report assesses microwave technology, equipment, processing methods, and applications. (1994 166 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-05027-8) NMAB~72 COUNTERFEIT DETERRENT FEATURES FOR THE: NEXT-GENER\TION CURRENCY DESIGN An important part of the U.S. Department of the Treasury mission is deterring counterfeiting. As new and improved reprographic methods have come into use, the DeparOnent of the Treasury has made changes to bank notes to enhance their resistance to counterfeiting. The report reviews and assesses a number of possible counterfeit deterrent features. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to

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12 LIMB Catalog assist He Treasury Department in developing the design of the next generation currency and ensuring that U.S. currency remains secure well into the next century. (1993, 143 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-05028-6) NMAB471 DETECTION OF EXPLOSIVES FOR COMMERCIAL AVIATION SECURI1~Y(U) The threat posed to commercial aviation by small, concealed explosive devices is particularly severe because Hey are difficult to detect using current techniques and can cause tremendous destruction and loss of life. Protecting air travelers from terrorists is an essential mission of He Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA plays a critical role in defining the terrorist threat, stimulating He development of explosive detection devices and systems, and in regulating their use. The key issues for the FAA regarding explosive detection technology are: (1) What can various detection methods do in principle? (2) What can they do in practice? (3) How can various methods be employed to counter He terrorist Great? This report of the Committee on Commercial Aviation Security addresses these issues from a detection technology perspective. It discusses and assesses system consideration, testing protocols and performance criteria, and recent explosive-detection technology developments. (1993, 105 pp., unclassified summary) NMAB-470 EXPANDING THE VISION OF SENSOR MATERIALS Sensor technology is a rapidly growing field that can contribute to improved operation, reliability, serviceability, and utility of many engineered systems. The national trend is toward the development of sensor materials tailored to specific, or targeted, applications rather than toward fundamental R&D without specific applications. This report suggests a communication tool that employs a common set of descriptors to map sensor application requirements to sensor technology attributes and vice versa. The report employs a case study approach to illustrate

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4B Reports 13 the driving forces and considerations that affect the development and incorporation of new sensor technologies. Examples from two applications areas (manufacturing and structural monitoring and control) and two sensor technology categories (long-wavelength infrared sensors and chemical sensors) were used to develop the report findings. (1995, 144 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-051754) NMAB469 SUMMARY RECORD: WORKSHOP ON ALTERNATIVES TO CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS AS SOLVENTS Seventeen major U.S., European, and Japanese corporations formed the Industry Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP) in collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency to protect the ozone layer. The impetus for ~ninimizing or eliminating chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) comes from the growing body of knowledge concerning depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer and the development of polar ozone "holes." An NMAB workshop, funded by ICOLP, concentrated on CFC solvent use and addressed the following areas: containment, inert blanketing, and recycling; cleanliness; novel cleaning agent development; water removal; total systems approaches; other needs; risk/benefit analysis; and expanding the knowledge and research base of the CFC issue. Conclusions and possible solutions that emerged from the workshop presentations are included. (1991, 19 pp., available from NTIS, PB92-196328) NMAB468 MATERIALS RESEARCH AGENDA FOR THE AllTOMOllVE AND AIRCRAFT INDUSTRIES This study presents a materials research agenda for He commercial aircraft and automotive industries for die next two decades. One case study from each of He industries was used as a basis for discussion within the report: the 50-mpg, five- passenger sedan for the automobile industry and the high-speed civil transport for the aircraft industry. These examples were chosen because both are industry

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14 MIL4B Catalog priorities dependent in part on materials innovations. The conclusions and recommendations identify general materials drivers for the industries for the next 10 to 20 years and the materials research required for each field. (1993, 83 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309 04985-7) NMAB467 COMPUI~R-AIDED MATERIALS SELECTION DURING STRUCTURAL DESIGN Selecting the proper materials for a structural component is critical to design engineering. It is governed by many, often conflicting factors that typically include service requirements, design life, materials availability, database accessibility, manufacturing constraints, repair and replacement strategies, client preferences, and cost. Incorporating of computer-aided materials selection systems into computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing operations could assist designers by suggesting potential manufacturing processes for particular products to facilitate concurrent engineering by recommending various materials for a specific part based on a given set of characteristics or proposing possible modifications of a design if suitable materials for a particular part do not exist. This report reviews the structural design process, determines the elements and capabilities required for a computer-aided materials selection system to assist design engineers, and recommends the research and development areas of materials database, knowledge base, and modeling required to develop a computer-aided materials selection system. (1995, 81 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309~5193-2) NMAB466 INDUSTRIAL WASTE REDUCTION AND UTILIZATION An independent assessment was conducted of the programs and plans of He Industrial Waste Reduction and Utilization (IWR&U) program of the Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. Procedures for identifying and selecting projects were examined to identify potential improvements in planning

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4B Reports 15 and program initiation. Recommendations include more interaction win industry in program planning; more interaction win over federal agencies and universities; and funding innovative ideas in chemicals, refining, and related industries. Opportunities for innovative industrial and academic research projects are identified. (1993, 95 pp., available from National Materials Advisory Board) NMAB465 COMMERCIALIZATION OF NEW MATERIALS FOR A GLOBAL ECONOMY Materials are important in the pursuit of virtually every human endeavor. Advances in materials are applied not only in advanced technological systems like spacecraft, jet engines, computers, and telecommunications but also in a wide range of familiar applications, from automobiles to floor coverings to fishing rods. Based on a synthesis of a three-day workshop featuring presentations by National Materials Advisory Board members and case studies by invited representatives from four materials suppliers, this report addresses the factors that impede the transition of new materials from concept into commercial use. It suggests action- oriented strategies that government and industry, together with universities, can take to remove these impediments. (1993, 78 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-04734-X) NMAB-464 HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURES IN BIOLOGY AS A GUIDE FOR NEW MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Hierarchical structures are assemblages of molecular units or their aggregates that are embedded or intertwined with other phases, which in turn are similarly organized at increasing size levels. The multilevel architectures are capable of conferring unique properties on the structure. Hierarchical structures are found in practically all complex systems, particularly naturally occurring ones. Synthetic hierarchical structures can be prepared from metals, ceramics, or polymers, or from hybrids of various classes of these materials. (1994, 142 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-04638-6)

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16 NMAB-463 REDUCING THE RISK OF EXPLOSIVES ON COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT(U) SUMMARY NMAB Catalog The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) near-term and long-term projects on instrumental methods for detecting explosives that might be brought aboard commercial aircraft by terrorists are reviewed. The objective of the committee was to judge whether the scientific elements of the FAA research and development efforts were well chosen, in correct priority, and whether potentially useful approaches were overlooked. The strengths and drawbacks of various instrumental techniques were considered. Recommendations are made for improving the detection capability to reduce the risks of explosives on commercial aircraft. (1990, 20 pp., available from National Materials Advisory Board) NMAB462 FIRES IN MASS TRANSIT VEHICLES: GUIDELINES FOR THE EVALUATION OF TOXIC HAZARDS This report addresses fire modeling, fire testing, smoke toxicity testing, fire hazard assessment, and fire risk assessment. In Be assessment of potential toxic hazards in the event of fires in mass transit vehicles, the report concludes that selection of candidate materials should be based on analyses based on both toxicological and engineering considerations. (1991, 98 pp.; available from NTIS, PB92-1963 10) NMAB-461 BEAM TECHNOLOGIES FOR INTEGRATED PROCESSING Beam technologies play an important role in microelectronic component fabrication and may have applications in other manufacturing schemes. Various beam technologies are reviewed, and applications to electronics and engineered materials are identified. Examples of existing manufacturing processes that employ beam technologies are described. Recommendations for research and development efforts are made for enhancing the understanding of the operation and capabilities of beam technologies and their application, which could lead to

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NUMB Reports 17 more widespread use in integrated systems in the industrial manufacturing sector. (1992, 91 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-04635-1; also available from DTIC) NMAB-460 LIFE PREDICTION METHODOLOGIES FOR COMPOSITE MATERL\LS The committee assessed methodologies used for the life prediction of organic composites utilized in load-bearing applications. The study surveys the state of the art of composites technology and life prediction methodologies for fiber- reinforced polymer composites under various loading conditions. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for future research and development to aid in the development of reliable life prediction methods that allow the safe and predictable application of organic matrix composites in load-bearing structures. (1991, 76 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A248637) NMAB-458 HIGH-PERFORMANCE SYNTHETIC FIBERS FOR COMPOSITES This report describes the properties of the principal classes of high-performance synthetic fibers, as well as several current and potential methods of synthesizing and processing to attain desirable properties. Promising classes of materials and methods of fiber synthesis are suggested for further investigation. The report emphasizes the relatively poor fundamental understanding of fiber-matrix reactions and the fiber-matrix "interphase" region. Research directed at improving understanding of the properties and behavior of Me boundary region is identified as a prime need if advances are to be made in fiber and composite performance. The report emphasizes He complex interdisciplinary nature of fiber science and makes strong policy recommendations for long-range continuity of fiber research and increased support of education in fiber science. Because of the international scope of the commercial fiber and composites industries and the critical importance of fibers for military and space applications, the report considers the

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26 M1~4B Catalog advanced materials, and information dissemination are discussed. The benefits that would result from a comprehensive systems analysis approach to corrosion science and engineering in key transportation, infrastructure, and energy sectors are described. Recommendations that address theory and modeling, experimental probes, lifetime predictions, advanced materials, multidisciplinary efforts, and education are made. (1987, 120 pp.; available from NTIS, PB89-168918) NMAB43 8-1 NEW HORIZONS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY This report reviews the status of current knowledge of electrochemical science and technology and makes recommendations for future research and development in this multidisciplinary field. New technological opportunities in diverse applications batteries and fuel cells, biomedical and health care practices, coatings and films, corrosion, surface processing, manufacturing and waste utilization, membranes, microelectronics, and sensors are identified. Opportunities for cross-cutting research in key areas that will provide the technology base needed in the fixture are delineated, and He socioeconomic impact of electrochemistry is outlined and compared with current federal support levels. (1986, 148 pp., available from National Academy Press ISBN 0-309-03735-2; also available from NTIS, PB90-172792/AS) NMAB-437 CONCRETE DUPABILITY: A MULTIBILLION-DOLLAR OPPORlIJNITY Cement and concrete industry practices fail to take advantage of the many opportunities for increased durability and service life that could be achieved through better use of state-of-the-art knowledge. A number of complex technical and institutional factors have led to this situation, and this report discusses specific issues and barriers. (1987, 106 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A190 908)

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4B Reports NMAB-435 TRIBOLOGY OF CERAMICS 27 The tribological requirements of advanced mechanical systems now being developed (in particular, heat engines) exceed the capabilities of traditional metallic-based materials because of the high temperatures encountered. Advanced ceramic materials for such applications are receiving intensive scrutiny, but Here is a lack of understanding of the properties and behavior of ceramic surfaces, with and without lubricants. The state of knowledge of ceramic surface structures, composition, and reactivity is reviewed. The instrumentation and techniques available for the study of ceramic surfaces and the influence of processing of the properties of ceramics are described. The adequacy of models, ranging from atomic to macro, to describe and to predict ceramic friction and wear are discussed, as well as what is known about lubrication at elevated temperatures. (1988, 124 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A248 985) NMAB-434 THE PLACE FOR THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES IN STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS The potential for He development of thermoplastic matrix, carbon-fiber composites as structural materials is evaluated. Compared to thermoses matrices, thermoplastics appear to offer increases in toughness and durability while offering the potential for more cost-effective manufacturing methods. Both long- and short-fiber systems are described. The properties of thermoplastics are compared with those of thermoses and matrix materials. (1987, 132 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A189 149) NMAB433 COl)NTERFElTING THREATS AND DETERRENT MEASURES High-quality reprographic systems could lead to a greatly increased level of currency counterfeiting that could strain and possibly saturate U.S. law- enforcement resources. The traditional deterrents employed in present U.S.

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28 LIMB Catalog currency are inadequate to prevent counterfeiting by these new reprographic means. An extensive list of potential anticounterfeiting deterrents previously examined was re-evaluated in the light of further technological advances. A strong recommendation is added to pursue further development of deterrents exemplified by watermarks and security thread for instance, the general class of deterrents that utilize the three dimensional properties of the substrate, because reprographic systems cannot transfer these volume-related properties from a genuine note to a counterfeit substrate. Two other candidate deterrents complex design and optically variable ir~also were found to merit consideration. (1987, 38 pp., available only from U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Office of Public Affairs, 14th and C Streets, S.W., Washington, DC 20228) NMAB432 PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL RECORDS The National Archives is the repository for permanently valuable documents of various federal government agencies. Concerns exist about the condition of stored paper records because of the increasing quantities that must be handled and the deteriorating state of some of them. Various methods for preserving paper records are examined and alternative actions for preserving the original documents or retaining more permanently the information contained in them. The accessibility requirements of the Archives retrieval system limit the acceptable preservation alternatives for most of the at-risk holdings to photocopying and photographic film storage. Environmental effects are discussed, and standards for potentially dangerous airborne con~ninants in the Archives storage areas are developed. Continued monitoring of potentially high-risk records is necessary so that timely corrective action can be taken. (1986,112 pp., available from National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309~3681-X)

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M~4B Reports NMAB431 CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED HEAT ENGINES 29 The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory program on ceramic technology for advanced heat engines is "to apply the increasing base of fundamental knowledge and research tools to develop new and improved processes for cost-effective ceramic materials with improved reliability and performance charactenstics." This report assesses the program, He objectives, balance, and priorities. (1987, 80 pp., available from NTIS, PB-87232977) NMAB430 MATERIALS FOR LARGE LANI~BASED GAS Tt1RBINES Advanced large land-based gas turbines are expected to be a key component in the generation of electric power based on coal gasification and a combined-cycle gas turbine-steam turbine system. The development of gas turbines in the 120- to 150-MW range with turbine inlet temperatures of 2600F at pressure ratios up to 16: 1 is envisioned over the next 15 to 20 years. Currently available and developing materials technology useful for large machines are reviewed and discussed. (1986, 125 pp., available from NTIS, PB87-120531) NMAB429-2 INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN low STEEL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES l~OUGH WASTE RECYCLING AND REDUCTION Energy conservation opportunities in the U.S. steel and petrochemical industries are addressed, with He primary focus on He potential of waste utilization and waste minimization to improve energy efficiency. Areas especially recommended for inclusion in steel industry research and development programs are refinement and reuse of scrap, including physical separation, hydrometallurgical separation, and pyrometallurgical separation; techniques for near-net-shape forming, such as electromagnetic casting, spray casting, and twin roll casting; processes to

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30 NMAB Catalog produce steels low In nitrogen and carbon in an electric arc furnace to expand the use of scrap; improved instrumentation and control procedures to eliminate defects in cold-rolled and hot-rolled slabs and sheets; cost-effective technologies for the recovery of energy in waste streams; and low-cost, high-temperature metallic and ceramic materials for use in recuperators. The petrochemical industry already follows energy-conserving practices to a high degree; however, a critical problem involves the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes. (1987, 74 pp., available from NTIS, PB87-233003) NMAB429-1 ASSESSMENT OF low INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM, FY 1985 AND PLANNED FY 1986 This report examines and evaluates the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Energy Conservation Program for fiscal year 1985. It also contains an assessment of the distribution of projects undertaken by the Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) to determine whether there was a satisfactory balance between short and long term objectives; whether there was an appropriate sequencing and flow of projects from year to year; the interfaces between OIP and other related federal and industrial programs; and the role of the federal government in industrial energy conservation. (1985, 46 pp., available from National Materials Advisory Board) NMAB428 BIOPROCESSING FOR 'low ENERGY-ElilCIENT PRODUCTION OF CE~CALS Potential applications of biotechnology for the conservation of energy and/or nonrenewable resources through innovative processing and engineering design are considered. Cells and enzymes are capable of synthesizing, from renewable resources, many organic chemicals of industrial interest.Bioprocessing can make useful contributions in three areas: (1) replacement of natural gas and petroleum with renewable resources; (2) replacement of chemical and thermal conversions

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NAL4B Reports 31 with bioconversions; and (3) replacement of current products with bioprocessing products of similar functionality. Research needs in six areas are identified: raw materials; biocatalysis; bioreactors; bioprocessing separations; process sensing, control, and analysis; and products. (1986, 59 pp., available from NTIS, PB86-199874/AS) NMAB426 MAGNETIC MATERIALS The report describes the fundamental role that magnetic materials play in many of the electrical and electronic systems used in modern society. It reviews the status of magnetic materials in their current engineering applications and identifies technical issues whose resolution would lead to improved performance as well as to new applications of these materials. The report recommends more research in the areas of rare-earth permanent magnets, amorphous magnetic materials, and recording media, and it lists a n ember of scientific challenges. (1985, 96 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A154679) NMAB425 BASIC AND STRATEGIC METALS INDUSTRIES: THREATS AND OPPORTUN1T~S Five strategic metals processing industries (iron and steel, copper, aluminum, titanium, and superalloys) are assessed in terms of their capacity and survival problems in the worldwide competitive marketplace. The availability of four critical alloying elements (chromium, cobalt, columbium, and tantalum) are also discussed. An overview of the current status of each of these industries is presented in terms of their unique characteristics and needs. Some innovative technologies and processing steps are identified as having merit for improving the competitive posture of these industries. (1985, 164 pp., available from NTIS, PB86-154499/AS)

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32 NMAB424 QUARTZ FOR THE NATIONAL DEFENSE STOCKPILE MIDRIB Catalog The technology and major applications of cultured and natural crystalline and fused quartz are reviewed to provide background information and advice for decisions on composition and quantities of quartz for the National Defense Stockpile. (1985, 112 pp., available from NTIS, PB85-168359/AS) NMAB423 APPLICATION OF NONCONVENTIONAL MAll=ALS TO GUNS AND GllN TUBES The interaction between gun design and advanced materials was reviewed. The gun barrel environment is discussed in terms of the applicability of ceramics and composites. Erosion in gun barrels is a complex, poorly understood phenomenon, and thus it is difficult to assess the erosion-resistant capabilities of alternate materials. Ceramics have potential as barrel liners, but they have the limitation that they must always be kept in compression to avoid fracture. Both polymer- and metal-matrix composites are regarded as 'unsuitable for tubes, but they could be used with advantage in mounts, particularly in large-caliber guns. (1987, 99 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A176 102) NMAB~22 RELIABILITY OF ADHESIVE BONDS IlNDER SEVERE ENVIRONMENTS A workshop on reliability of adhesive bonds in severe environments was attended by about 100 invited experts. The detailed findings include the recommendation Cat the federal government spearhead a major effort to overcome the issues Hat currently prevent He reliable structural use of adhesive bonding in severe environments. A pervasive theme of the report is that the interdisciplinary nature of the subject requires close interaction among researchers on He chemistry, interphase science, and mechanics of adhesive bonds. (1984, 62 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A149 010)

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NIB Reports NMAB421 CONTROL OF WELDING PROCESSES 33 Automatic welding processes are being used more frequency in manufacturing, and this has led to an increased requirement for close control of the process. The objectives of welding control and the problems involved with such control are addressed. The report stresses the importance of understanding the basic processes arc physics, heat and fluid flow, solidification and process disturbances. The state of the art in welding process modeling and the feasibility and need for adaptive control are described. The report discusses the further understanding of the complex interactions needed before systems based on fully integrated computer-aided design and manufacturing and adaptive controls can be achieved. (1987, 52 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A177 893) NMAB420 EVALUATION OF TO DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE This report evaluates the Materials and Structures Technology Conference that reviewed the technology needs of the U. S. Department of Defense for military vehicles and weapons. (1984, 40 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A142 279) NMAB419 STRUCTURAL USES FOR DUCTILE ORDERED ALLOYS The unique mechanical properties of ordered alloys that make them attractive for structural applications are described. A major difficulty with these alloys has been a lack of ductility; however, in recent years several methods of ductility improvement have been developed. Current research efforts worldwide are reviewed, and it is concluded that the U.S. effort, although substantially smaller than it was 15 years ago, is yielding the most significant progress in the development of ductile ordered alloys. A number of possible generic applications are suggested for the newly developed ductile ordered alloys, including applications in gas turbine engines, rocket propulsion systems, and space power

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34 NAL4B Catalog systems. Areas where additional engineering data are required are identified, and a phased program of data acquisition is recommended. (1984, 109 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A146 313) NMAB418 HIGH-TEC~OLOGY CERAMICS IN JAPAN High-technology ceramics are made from extremely pure, composition controlled, ultra-minute particles formed, sintered, and treated under closely regulated conditions. These properties and processes give superior performance characteristics that allow the materials to be used in a wide range of demanding applications far beyond the capabilities of conventional ceramics. Japan is widely viewed as having a significant nation al commitment to developing and exploiting high-technology ceramics in order to advance its domestic and international markets. This report presents the findings of a committee formed to assess Japanese technology, with the objective of providing an understanding of the possible effects on high-technology ceramics in the United States. (1985, 80 pp., available from NTIS, PB85-125029) NMAB417 ASSURING STRUCTURAL INTEGRllY IN ARMY SYSTEMS The objective of this study was to recommend possible improvements in the manner in which structural integrity of Army systems is assured. The elements of a structural integrity program are described, and relevant practices used in various industries and government organizations are reviewed. Some case histories of Army weapon systems are examined. The mandatory imposition of a structural integrity program patterned after the Air Force Aircraft Structural Integrity Program is recommended, and the benefits of such an action are identified. (1985, 74 pp., available from DTIC, AD-A152 397)

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NMAB Reports NMAB416 MATERIALS AND PROCESSING INFLUENCES ON SILICON VLSI RELIABILITY 35 This study was conducted to identify the materials processing parameters that contribute to failure in electronic components, particularly directed at silicon-based very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry. Included was consideration of the technology of attachment and encapsulation of VLSI chips on chip carriers. The VLSI devices were examined both from the point of view of generic structures (such as oxides) and these structures as they are applied in devices and circuits. With regard to chip carriers, the study was restricted to simple structures rather than the more complex multilayer ceramic multichip carriers used in some products. Recommendations are made on actions that should be implemented to improve component reliability. (1985, 129 pp., limited distribution, available from DTIC, AD-B096 142) NMAB415 PLASMA PROCESSING OF MATERIALS The report contains an assessment of recent developments in processing materials through the use of plasma technology. Advances in this field in foreign countries are discussed, and the potentials for this type of processing relative to selected materials are reviewed from the standpoints of cost-effectiveness and technical viability. The report addresses thermal plasma melting and remelting technology, extracting and refining technology, plasma deposition, thermal plasma synthesis, and consolidation and processing using low-pressure nonequilibrium plasmas. Conclusions and recommendations are made for potential research and development projects in each of the technologies studied. (1985, 172pp., available from DTIC, AD-A152 398)

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