April 28, 1922–October 15, 1997


CARL W. GOTTSCHALK made critical discoveries in renal physciology and pathophysiology with innovative techniques of micropuncture. One of his earliest findings was definitive proof of how urine is concentrated by countercurrent multiplication. That discovery catapulted him to the front ranks of renal physiologists early in his career. In the following years he made many more important observations about the mechanism of urea excretion by the kidneys, the role of renal nerves in salt and water excretion, urinary acidification, and pathophysiologic mechanisms of acute and chronic renal disease. Because of the brilliance and quality of his research he was widely recognized as a leader in renal research.


Carl William Gottschalk was born on April 28, 1922, in Salem, Virginia, to Lula Helbig and Carl Gottschalk. His father had been born in Germany and emigrated to South Africa, where as a machinist he fabricated and repaired cigarette-making machines. Then, at age twenty-two he came to the United States. He lived most of his life in Salem, Virginia, where he owned a movie theater, automobile repair shop, and other downtown property. Carl William Gottschalk's

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