Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77 Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 77 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1999

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-06644-1 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     LYMAN JAMES BRIGGS BY PETER BRIGGS MYERS AND JOHANNA M. H. LEVELT SENGERS   3     ROGER WILLIAM BROWN BY JEROME KAGAN   21     PHILIP PACY COHEN BY ROBERT H. BURRIS   35     BERNARD DAVID DAVIS BY WERNER K. MAAS   51     MICHAEL J. S. DEWAR BY JOSEF MICHL AND MARYE ANNE FOX   65     ROBERT HENRY DICKE BY W. HAPPER, P. J. E. PEEBLES, AND D. T. WILKINSON   79     WALTHER FREDERICK. GOEBEL BY MACLYN McCARTY   97

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77     GERTRUDE SCHARFF GOLDHABER BY PETER D. BOND AND ERNEST HENLEY   109     CARL W. GOTTSCHALK BY MAURICE B. BURG   123     JESSE D. JENNINGS BY C. MELVIN AIKENS   143     JOHN GAMBLE KIRKWOOD BY STUART A. RICE AND FRANK H. STILLINGER   163     IZAAK MAURITS KOLTHOFF BY JOHANNES F. COETZEE   177     EDWIN HERBERT LAND BY VICTOR K. MCELHENY   199     RICHARD MACY NOYES BY RICHARD J. FIELD AND JOHN A. SCHELLMAN   225     JAMES OLDS BY RICHARD F. THOMPSON   247     ALWIN MAX PAPPENHEIMER, JR. BY H. SHERWOOD LAWRENCE   265     FREDERICK DOMINIC ROSSINI BY ERNEST L. ELIEL   283     THEODORE WILLIAM SCHULTZ BY D. GALE JOHNSON   303     JOHN CHARLES WALKER BY DONALD J. HAGEDORN   319     GIAN-CARLO WICK BY MAURICE JACOB   333

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 77 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary