Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

DANIEL M. KORETZ (Chair) is a professor of educational research, measurement, and evaluation at Boston College and a senior social scientist at RAND Education in Washington, DC. His research focuses on educational assessment and explores both the quality of assessments and their effects on schooling. He has carried out extensive work with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and is currently directing a study of the variability of performance in seven countries in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Dr. Koretz received his Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Cornell University.

SUSAN A. AGRUSO is director of the Office of Assessment of the South Carolina Department of Education. In that capacity she is responsible for development, pilot testing, and administration of the state's educational testing program. Her research interests focus on the development of alternative assessment measures, the alignment of educational standards, assessments, and instructional practices, and gender and equity issues in testing. Dr. Agruso earned her Ph.D. in instructional psychology from the University of New York at Albany.

MERYL W. BERTENTHAL (Study Director) is a senior program officer in the Board on Testing and Assessment of the National Research Council. Previously, she served as a senior research associate with the Com-



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Embedding Questions: The Pursuit of a Common Measure in Uncommon Tests Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff DANIEL M. KORETZ (Chair) is a professor of educational research, measurement, and evaluation at Boston College and a senior social scientist at RAND Education in Washington, DC. His research focuses on educational assessment and explores both the quality of assessments and their effects on schooling. He has carried out extensive work with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and is currently directing a study of the variability of performance in seven countries in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. Dr. Koretz received his Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Cornell University. SUSAN A. AGRUSO is director of the Office of Assessment of the South Carolina Department of Education. In that capacity she is responsible for development, pilot testing, and administration of the state's educational testing program. Her research interests focus on the development of alternative assessment measures, the alignment of educational standards, assessments, and instructional practices, and gender and equity issues in testing. Dr. Agruso earned her Ph.D. in instructional psychology from the University of New York at Albany. MERYL W. BERTENTHAL (Study Director) is a senior program officer in the Board on Testing and Assessment of the National Research Council. Previously, she served as a senior research associate with the Com-

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Embedding Questions: The Pursuit of a Common Measure in Uncommon Tests mittee on Equivalency and Linkage of Educational Tests, also with the Board on Testing and Assessment. Her areas of interest include student assessment, educational reform, and education policy. Ms. Bertenthal earned her M.A.Ed from Clark University and completed a post master's degree program in counseling education at the University of Virginia. BERT F. GREEN is a professor of psychology, emeritus, at Johns Hopkins University. He is a member of a national committee that is revising the standards for educational and psychological testing. He serves on the psychometric council for the School Performance Assessment Program of the Maryland State Department of Education. His research concerns psychometric methods for computer-based adaptive testing, as well as performance assessment and health assessment. Dr. Green earned his Ph.D. in psychology from Princeton University. RONALD K. HAMBLETON is distinguished university professor and chair of the Research and Evaluation Methods Program at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. His current research includes work on item response theory (IRT) model fit, optimal test design, differential item functioning, computer-adaptive testing, test translations and adaptations, problems associated with score reporting and standard-setting, reliability assessment on credentialing exams, and validity issues associated with performance assessments in education and the credentialing field. Dr. Hambleton received his Ph.D. in psychometric methods and statistics from the University of Toronto. PAUL W. HOLLAND is a professor in the Graduate School of Education and the Department of Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the Board on Testing and Assessment and served as the chair of the Committee on the Equivalency and Linkage of Educational Tests. He participates in the Berkeley Evaluation and Assessment Research Project, working on developing new assessment techniques and evaluation methodologies for practical application in the schools. He also serves on a technical advisory committee for the California Learning Assessment System (CLAS). Dr. Holland earned his Ph.D. in statistics from Stanford University. H.D. HOOVER is a professor of statistics and educational measurement at the University of Iowa, director of the Iowa Basic Skills Testing Program, and senior author of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. His research

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Embedding Questions: The Pursuit of a Common Measure in Uncommon Tests interests include test scaling, test equating, group differences in item and test performance, and the measurement of mathematics achievement. Dr. Hoover received his Ph.D. in statistics and educational measurement from the University of Iowa. BRIAN W. JUNKER is an associate professor of statistics at Carnegie Mellon University. His research has focused on latent variable models used in the design and analysis of standardized tests, small-scale experiments in psychology and psychiatry, and large-scale educational surveys such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Dr. Junker received his Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Illinois. JOHN J. SHEPHARD is a senior project assistant in the Board on Testing and Assessment of the National Research Council. In addition to his work with the Committee on Embedding Test Items in State and District Assessments, he works with the Committee on the Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress and the recently formed Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools. Mr. Shephard received his B.A. in anthropology from The Colorado College. JAMES A. WATTS is vice president for state services at the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). He coordinates the board's work with the region's 15 state governors, legislatures, and their staff. Among his substantive interests are educational standards and accountability, school leadership, and school reform. Dr. Watts received his Ed.D. in educational administration and public policy from Indiana University. KAREN K. WIXSON is a professor and the interim dean of the School of Education at the University of Michigan. Her areas of expertise include the development of curriculum and instructional methodology for teaching reading, as well as the design and construction of assessment tools to measure reading achievement. She has done considerable work related to the development of the National Assessment of Educational Progress reading tests and served as an adviser for the Voluntary National Tests for 4th-grade reading. Dr. Wixson received her Ph.D. in reading education from Syracuse University. WENDY M. YEN is vice president of research at CTB/McGraw-Hill.

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Embedding Questions: The Pursuit of a Common Measure in Uncommon Tests Her research interests include scaling and equating. She is past president of the National Council on Measurement in Education and has served as a trustee of the Psychometric Society. She currently serves on the editorial advisory boards of the Journal of Educational Measurement and Applied Measurement in Education and recently served as a consultant to the NRC Committee on the Equivalence and Linkage of Educational Tests. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. REBECCA ZWICK is a professor of education and director of the research methodology program in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California at Santa Barbara. Her current work includes the refinement and application of methods she and her colleagues have developed for assessing differential item functioning (item bias) in small samples, as well as a book for the general public on the use of standardized testing in college and graduate school admissions. She received her M.S. in statistics from Rutgers University and her Ph.D. in quantitative methods in education from the University of California at Berkley.