1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program

Committee on the Review of ONR's Air and Surface Weaponry Program

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program 1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Committee on the Review of ONR's Air and Surface Weaponry Program Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-99-I-0502 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06632-8 Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF ONR'S AIR AND SURFACE WEAPONRY PROGRAM ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair GEORGE S. SEBESTYEN, Systems Development, LLC, Co-Chair EUGENE E. COVERT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOSE B. CRUZ, JR., Ohio State University VICTOR C.D. DAWSON, Poolesville, Maryland ROGER E. FISHER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ELIEZER G. GAI, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc. DANIEL N. HELD, Northrop Grumman BERNARD H. PAIEWONSKY, Bethesda, Maryland ROBERT F. STENGEL, Princeton University JOHN F. WALTER, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University JAY B. YAKELEY, Vienna, Virginia Consultant Sidney G. Reed, Jr. Staff Charles F. Draper, Program Officer

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair DAVID R. HEEBNER, McLean, Virginia, Past Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute JAMES P. BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation GERALD A. CANN, Rockville, Maryland RUTH A. DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K. DAVIS, Rand, and Rand Graduate School of Policy Studies SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor ANTHONY J. DeMARIA, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, Inc. FRANK A. HORRIGAN, Raytheon Systems Company RICHARD J. IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories DAVID W. McCALL, Far Hills, New Jersey ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California JAMES M. SINNETT, Boeing Company KEITH A. SMITH, Vienna, Virginia ROBERT C. SPINDEL, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington DAVID L. STANFORD, Science Applications International Corporation PAUL K. VAN RIPER, Williamsburg, Virginia VERENA S. VOMASTIC, Institute for Defense Analyses BRUCE WALD, Center for Naval Analyses MITZI WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM Raymond C. Smith, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM Paul G. Gaffney II, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 Ronald D. Taylor, Director Charles F. Draper, Program Officer Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Mary G. Gordon, Information Officer James E. Maciejewski, Senior Project Assistant

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, ERIM International, Inc., Co-Chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-Chair WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara JERRY P. GOLLUB, Haverford College MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University JOHN L. HENNESSY, Stanford University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California at Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director (through July 1999) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director (as of August 1999)

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Preface The mission of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is to maintain a close relationship with the research and development community to support long-range research, foster discovery, nurture future generations of researchers, produce new technologies that meet known naval requirements, and provide innovations in fields relevant to the future Navy and Marine Corps. Accordingly, ONR supports research activities across a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As one means for ensuring that its investments appropriately address naval priorities and requirements and that its programs are of high scientific and technical quality, ONR requires that each of its departments undergo an annual review (with a detailed focus on about one-third of the reviewed department's programs). The Air and Surface Weapons Technology (ASWT) program resides within the Strike Technology Division of the Naval Expeditionary Warfare Science and Technology Department of ONR and accounts for approximately 25 percent of the department's budget. At the request of ONR, the National Research Council (NRC) established a committee to review and evaluate ONR's ASWT program components in the mission areas of air superiority, precision strike, naval fire support, ship-based defense, and supporting science and technology, including uninhabited combat air vehicles, against criteria such as appropriateness of the investment strategy within the context of naval priorities and requirements, impact on and relevance to naval needs, and scientific and technical quality. In the selection of committee members, expertise was drawn heavily from the following areas: guidance and control, fire control, aeromechanics, solid and air-breathing propulsion, naval gun systems and launchers, and uninhabited combat air vehicles. The Committee on the Review of ONR's Air and Surface Weaponry Program met once, May 26–28, 1999, in Washington, D.C., to both gather information and prepare an initial draft report. The three-day meeting was divided into two parts: the first comprised presentations by and interactions with project managers (and ONR-supported principal investigators) responsible for various program components, and the second was devoted to drafting the committee's findings and recommendations and developing consensus on them. The resulting report represents the committee's consensus views on the issues posed in the charge.

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Roy R. Buehler, Lockheed Martin, James W. Dally, University of Maryland, Earl H. Dowell, Duke University, L. Raymond Hettche, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, Edwin L. Key, Mitre Corporation (retired), William M. Locke, RADM, USN (retired), and Jeffrey Wadsworth, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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1999 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Air and Surface Weapons Technology Program Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Overview of the 1999 ONR ASWT Program Assessment   4     Introduction   4     Scope of and Approach to the Assessment   4     General Observations   5 2   Assessment of the ONR ASWT Program   10     Introduction   10     Air Superiority   10     Precision Strike   13     Naval Fire Support   19     Ship-based Defense   21     ASWT Supporting Science and Technology (6.1 and 6.2) Program Areas   24     Appendixes     A Committee Biographies   29     B Acronyms and Abbreviations   33

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