Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 106
The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State APPENDIX I Goals, Strategies, and Objectives in the Program Plan of the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs Melinda L. Kimble, Acting Assistant Secretary1 GOAL 1: Conserve and Sustainably Manage Terrestrial, Marine, and Atmospheric Resources, Including the Earth's Climate System Strategy The U.S. Government will engage in a range of activities that include bilateral, regional, and multilateral negotiations; implementation of international agreements; bilateral and regional dialogues with key countries; and bilateral and regional activities that improve the capabilities of developing countries and promote regional cooperation on transboundary environmental issues. Many of the regional and bilateral activities will be focused on building or sustaining coalitions that support U.S. positions and advance our interests in international negotiations. Details of specific activities, treaty negotiations, and cooperative initiatives are given below; some examples of key activities include: Participation in the Tropical Forests Conservation Act, Commission on Sustainable Development, and International Coral Reef Initiative to promote innovative mechanisms for sustainable management of key ecosystems. Participation in the 6th Conference of the Parties [COP-6] to achieve 1 Presented in July 1999. This material was extracted from the OES internal program plan, which also discusses past accomplishments and administrative issues.
OCR for page 107
The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State international agreement on rules and guidelines for components of the Kyoto Protocol. Use of bilateral projects or regional workshops to promote mutually supportive relations between trade and sustainable management of ecosystems. Implementation of existing agreements to promote sustainable fisheries and protect marine ecosystems including the implementation of the Global Program of Action. Objectives Promote innovative mechanisms for sustainable management of key marine and terrestrial ecosystems, including the polar caps and freshwater resources. Achieve international agreement on rules and guidelines on the components of the Kyoto Protocol, and continue implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Protect the marine environment and endangered marine species, with a special emphasis on marine pollution and fisheries management. Reduce transboundary air and water pollution through cooperative efforts with Canada, Mexico, and ECE [Eastern and Central European] countries. Safeguard and promote U.S. environmental interests in the context of trade and economic liberalization efforts. Promote international collaboration in the use of space technologies for environmental monitoring and humanitarian response. GOAL 2: Reduce Health and Environmental Risks from Toxic Chemicals, Hazardous Wastes, and the Emergence and Spread of Infectious Diseases Strategy To promote the safe management of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes and to address the spread of infectious disease, the U.S. Government will engage in a range of activities that include bilateral, regional, and multilateral negotiations; implementation of international agreements; bilateral and regional dialogues; and capacity-building activities to promote regional cooperation on transboundary environmental issues, including: Fund, and participate in, meetings related to the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Convention.
OCR for page 108
The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Sponsor capacity-building activities related to the reduction or elimination of persistent organic pollutants. Participate in global and regional activities to reduce and manage risks to the environment and human health associated with international shipments and disposal of hazardous wastes. Implement the Secretary of State's Action Plan for the Diplomatic Initiative on HIV/AIDS. Objectives Reduce or eliminate releases of persistent organic pollutants into the environment and promote the sound management of chemicals globally. Reduce and manage risks to human health and environment associated with the international shipment and disposal of hazardous waste. Strengthen political commitment for enhanced global preparedness against infectious diseases. GOAL 3: Promote Open Access to Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, Including the Oceans and Space, in Accordance with International Law Strategy The U.S. Government will engage in a range of activities that include bilateral, regional, and multilateral negotiations; key country accession and international compliance with agreements and norms; and capacity building of enforcement and monitoring organizations. Details of specific activities, treaty negotiations, and cooperative initiatives are given below; some examples of key activities are: Working with the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization and International Commission on the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) to maintain and promote fishing opportunities for U.S. fisheries. Supporting the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Participating in multilateral discussions (e.g., World Radio Communication Conference) to promote the acceptance of the U.S. Global Positioning System as the worldwide standard for satellite-based navigation services. Through bilateral S&T agreements, promote U.S. Government access to foreign S&T institutions and establishments in areas that support U.S. environment, health, economic, and security interests.
OCR for page 109
The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Objectives Maintain and promote fishing opportunities for U.S. fisheries. Promote acceptance of the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) as a worldwide standard for satellite-based navigation services. Devise bilateral and multilateral agreements to ensure U.S. access to space. Implement international law concerning ocean jurisdiction as reflected in the provisions of the Law of the Sea Convention. GOAL 4: Strengthen Bilateral and Regional Relationships and Multilateral Institutions to Advance, Broadly, the Goals of the Bureau Strategy The U.S. Government will engage in a range of activities that build bilateral and regional relationships. These may include technology transfer, science and technology cooperation, or the funding of and participation in workshops, meetings and conferences. Many of these activities will focus on integrating U.S. Government environment and health goals with broader political, economic, humanitarian and security-related interests. EST and regional environmental officers are a necessary component to achieving this mission. Some examples of targeted activities: Use existing bilateral relationships or regional fora—such as APEC [Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum], ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations], or the EU [European Union]—to communicate U.S. Government environment, health and science goals and objectives to key countries, including China, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Brazil, Russia and Ukraine. Develop new and expand nascent dialogues with key countries and regional mechanisms to advance U.S. Government environment, health and science interests. Countries and regional organizations include Egypt, India, South Africa, Columbia, the South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Broadly promote U.S. interests by participating in and supporting the Global Environment Facility, UNEP [United Nations Environment Programme], Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC], UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, UN Committee on Sustainable Development, and OECD Environmental Policy Committee.
OCR for page 110
The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Objectives Create new and utilize existing regularly planned dialogues with key countries to advance EST&H interests, and increase capacity of those managing the EST portfolio at post to manage environmental diplomacy relationships. Enhance regional engagements through regional environmental hubs and EST officers at post to advance U.S. Government environment, oceans, science, technology and health goals, and to help regions respond to environmental challenges. Safeguard and promote U.S. environmental and health interests worldwide through cooperative efforts in multilateral (e.g., OECD, UNEP, IPCC, CSD), financial (e.g., Global Environment Facility) and scientific institutions. GOAL 5: Ensure that Science Informs, and is Integrated into, the Conduct of U.S. Foreign Policy, and Promote Interests of the U.S. Scientific Community Strategy The Department of State will employ several methods to better integrate science and technology into foreign policy decision-making. In addition to consultations with expert technical agencies, academic institutions, international scientific bodies, and nongovernmental organizations, the Department of State will employ a special "science" advisor to facilitate the exchange of information between scientists and the foreign policy community. The Department will also utilize existing, and if necessary advocate new, multinational scientific organizations to advise policy-makers on important foreign policy issues. Examples of key activities include: Establish a science advisor within the Department of State to facilitate the integration of science into foreign policy decision making. Support international scientific institutions such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), International Commission for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the North Pacific Marine Research Organization (PICES), and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).
OCR for page 111
The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Objectives Improve integration of the science of climate change into U.S. foreign policy. Improve integration of marine science into U.S. foreign policy. Establish a science advisor within the Department of State to facilitate the integration of science into foreign policy decision-making. Expand bilateral S&T cooperation with key countries to build support for U.S. Government positions on environment, oceans, science, technology, and health issues. Improve flora and fauna information systems to support science-based ecosystem management and policy-making. GOAL 6: Increase Public Diplomacy and Outreach Strategy Conduct comprehensive public diplomacy and public affairs strategies to explain U.S. positions on key OES issues. Activities will include press relations; outreach to nongovernmental organizations, business and industry representatives, and other targeted audiences; and the distribution of public information on U.S. Government policies. OES must have the personnel, infrastructure, and technology necessary to communicate U.S. policy interests around the world. Objectives Establish an adequate infrastructure to support the Bureaus newly integrated public diplomacy function and OES international and domestic outreach operations. Increase bureau-wide and Department-wide awareness of and engagement in public diplomacy and outreach activities that support EST&H policy objectives. Conduct public diplomacy and provide on-site international media relations support to U.S. delegations during COP-6 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and during negotiations related to persistent organic pollutants.
Representative terms from entire chapter: