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Integration of STH Developments and U.S. Foreign Policy

STH AT THE FOREFRONT OF DIPLOMACY

Issues involving science, technology, and health (STH) have moved to the forefront of the international diplomatic agenda. Other vital issues linked to technological developments pervade longer-range foreign policy concerns. Thus, the Department must interact with other governments at a large number of bilateral and multilateral forums where STH considerations are central to the deliberations. STH aspects play a large role in discussions of such critical topics as nuclear nonproliferation, the use of outer space, population growth, adequate and safe food supply, infectious diseases, energy resources, and competitiveness of industrial technologies. In short, expert STH knowledge is essential in assessing many bilateral issues, global developments, and interactions between countries of importance to the United States. Further indicating the pervasiveness of STH developments, 13 of the 16 objectives set forth in the U.S. Strategic Plan for International Affairs encompass STH considerations (see Appendix G). At the operational level, Box 1-1 presents a few examples of specific issues in which achievement of foreign policy goals has required an understanding of the STH elements of the issues.

Not surprisingly, STH developments are frequently entwined in decisions on broad issues confronting the Secretary of State and other senior officials of the Department; and they have become daily fare for many action officers throughout the Department and overseas. There are few U.S. embassies or substantive bureaus or offices in Washington that are not regularly involved in STH-related issues.



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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State 1 Integration of STH Developments and U.S. Foreign Policy STH AT THE FOREFRONT OF DIPLOMACY Issues involving science, technology, and health (STH) have moved to the forefront of the international diplomatic agenda. Other vital issues linked to technological developments pervade longer-range foreign policy concerns. Thus, the Department must interact with other governments at a large number of bilateral and multilateral forums where STH considerations are central to the deliberations. STH aspects play a large role in discussions of such critical topics as nuclear nonproliferation, the use of outer space, population growth, adequate and safe food supply, infectious diseases, energy resources, and competitiveness of industrial technologies. In short, expert STH knowledge is essential in assessing many bilateral issues, global developments, and interactions between countries of importance to the United States. Further indicating the pervasiveness of STH developments, 13 of the 16 objectives set forth in the U.S. Strategic Plan for International Affairs encompass STH considerations (see Appendix G). At the operational level, Box 1-1 presents a few examples of specific issues in which achievement of foreign policy goals has required an understanding of the STH elements of the issues. Not surprisingly, STH developments are frequently entwined in decisions on broad issues confronting the Secretary of State and other senior officials of the Department; and they have become daily fare for many action officers throughout the Department and overseas. There are few U.S. embassies or substantive bureaus or offices in Washington that are not regularly involved in STH-related issues.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State BOX 1-1 Recent Foreign Policy Issues with Significant STH Content Communications Satellites and Technology Transfer In the fall of 1998, the U.S. Senate reviewed the decisions of the Department of Commerce to provide licenses to U.S. manufacturers for launching U.S.-made communications satellites and foreign satellites with U.S.-made components on Chinese rockets. The point of contention was whether the space launch activities had significantly benefited China's missile or military satellite capabilities. In looking to the future, the discussion centered on whether the Department of Commerce, with its major interest in promoting U.S. commercial sales, was the appropriate department to issue licenses for a technology with such obvious military relevance, whatever the safeguards to protect the technology, Late in 1998, Congress decided to transfer the licensing authority back to the Department of State. Given the growing importance of space-based communications systems throughout the world and the commercial stakes involved, this type of controversy over sales versus national security will continue for the indefinite future. U.S. Sanctions on Russian Scientific Institutions During 1998–1999, the U.S. Government, acting on recommendations of the Department of State, determined that a number of Russian institutions were transferring technology of relevance to weapons of mass destruction and advanced conventional weapons to Middle Eastern countries. In view of the seriousness of such transfers, the government imposed prohibitions on U.S. procurement of goods, technologies, or services from these institutions; U.S. assistance to the institutions; and imports of goods, technology, or services from these institutions into the United States. The first determination was that seven of the Institutions had transferred or planned to transfer missile-related items to Iran, the second was that three had transferred or planned to transfer nuclear-related or missile-related items to Iran, and the third was that three had transferred or planned to transfer lethal armaments to Syria. Each of these determinations involved a decision that the technology transfer reached a level of concern that warranted stopping ongoing cooperative programs designed to advance U.S. national security through engagement of Russian institutions in programs of mutual interest. The technical judgments as to the gains to the potential recipients of the transfers required sophisticated understanding of the problems involved in designing and manufacturing advanced weapons systems. Further, judgments as to the scientific and technological losses to the United States from proposed termination of cooperation were important. Removal of Uranium from Kazakhstan In 1994, the American Ambassador in Almaty received a request from the Kazakh Government to provide assistance in disposing of weapons-grade highly enriched uranium left over from the Soviet era. The Ambassador, in close consultation with the Department and other U.S. Government departments and agencies, helped orchestrate a complicated, highly classified response that led to the transfer of 600 kilograms of uranium to Oak Ridge, Tennessee, thereby removing a potential proliferation problem. The operation, called Project Sapphire, was carried

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State out with a minimum of problems in dealing with Russia, the U.S. Congress, and environmental groups. The Ambassador had considerable previous experience in addressing nuclear issues—within the Department, in Geneva, and in Brazil. His background was one of the reasons for his assignment to Almaty, which proved to be a very astute move by the Department. Global Climate Change There is an international scientific consensus that greenhouse gases impede the outward flow of infrared radiation from the earth to such an extent that the result is a warming of the earth, its atmosphere, and its oceans. However, there is great controversy over the extent, timing, and significance of this warming and the costs and effectiveness of measures that might be undertaken to reduce the warming. The Department is in continuing consultation with a number of congressional committees, several dozen U.S. departments and agencies, and many industrial, academic, and nongovernmental organizations as to steps that should be taken internationally to address global warming. Because of the scientific uncertainty and the potentially high costs of steps that might reduce adverse impacts, there are strong disagreements at home and abroad as to the best course for dealing with the issue. Further complicating the international scene, as reflected in the Kyoto Protocol, is the sharp split between the views of the developing countries, which are reluctant to commit any funds to addressing the issue, and many of the developed countries, which believe early action by all countries is warranted. Given the central role of the Department in addressing this topic in Washington, in capitals around the world, and at international negotiations, the need for many Department officers to have a high level of familiarity with the scientific as well as the political issues is clear. An International Protocol to Regulate Genetically Modified Organisms The 1993 Convention on Biological Diversity calls for an international agreement on biosafety directed to international trade and transfer of life forms altered by bioengineering techniques. The United States has not ratified the Convention, which has been ratified or accepted by 175 countries, and therefore the United State can participate in but cannot vote at negotiations for the new agreement called the Biosafety Protocol. The United States produces about 80 percent of the world's goods and commodities that involve biotechnology, including increased agricultural exports now valued at $60 billion annually. The U.S. Government supports a Biosafety Protocol that would protect plants and animals from threats posed by living modified organisms but believes the proposed protocol goes well beyond such concerns and could disrupt trade. Among the requirements that the United States considers unacceptable are (1) broad new labeling requirements for consumer products and commodities that are not released into the environment and (2) import permits on a case-by-case basis for bioengineered products that cross international borders. In 1999, the United States mobilized the support of six agricultural exporting nations in blocking efforts to reach agreement on a Biosafety Protocol with such requirements. In retrospect, the Department of State could have used the resources of the STH community to encourage the development of a Biosafety Protocol that is more consistent with U.S. foreign policy objectives. First, in 1992, greater attention to

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State the implications of the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity might have led to a more appropriate formulation concerning the scope of the Biosafety Protocol. Second, development of an international scientific consensus on the technical aspects of genetically modified organisms would have contributed to a better-informed dialogue at the international negotiations. Arsenic in Drinking Water Wells in Bangladesh Beginning in the late 1960s, almost 4 million wells were drilled in Bangladesh to solve the drinking water problem—financed by both bilateral and multilateral foreign assistance organizations. In the early 1980s, arsenic was discovered to be contaminating a large number of the wells—perhaps 50 percent. However, no remedial action was seriously considered until the 1990s. Now the World Bank and several European countries are attempting to reverse what has been characterized as the largest case of mass poisoning in the world. World Bank officials have attributed the problem to a lack of science and technology competence within the Bangladeshi government. At the same time, the many development agencies that have been involved cannot be excused for this serious lack of attention to arsenic poisoning. The U.S. Government, with its sophisticated water quality assessment capabilities and its long-standing assistance efforts in Bangladesh, must of course share the blame. Anxieties Concerning Plague Outbreak In 1994, Indian health authorities reported an outbreak of plague in Surat and in a rural area near Bombay. These reports triggered embargoes on travelers from the Middle East and imports of certain commodities. The U.S. Embassy in New Delhi offered to provide expert investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but the Indians declined the offer. The U.S. Ambassador then called in investigators anyway to check on the conditions being encountered by American diplomats. Once investigators were on the scene, the Indians agreed to accept their assistance as long as they were identified as specialists from the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Plague in Atlanta and were joined by specialists from other countries. By the time the investigators were finally on the scene, the outbreak had subsided; the team issued public health guidelines, and the WHO declared an end to the emergency. The embargoes were then lifted. The incident underscored the importance of the Department working closely with other U.S. departments and agencies and with international organizations. The Science Officer in New Delhi, a specialist in health affairs, was particularly effective in this regard. Also, it highlighted the sensitivity of STH-related developments that very directly affect the lives of people. Protection of Scientific Databases Commercial firms have made significant investments in developing the computer software for cataloging, storing, and retrieving large quantities of data, including scientific research data. Naturally, these companies want to protect these developments by obtaining intellectual property rights to them, while the scientific community wants to minimize any barriers to the exchange and use of research data.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State In 1997, the World Intellectual Property Organization considered a proposal for according property rights to the developers of scientific databases who could then market access to the data at rates they considered appropriate. On the eve of the negotiations, the U.S. scientific community became aware of this agenda item and persuaded the U.S. Government to oppose a legal framework that would inappropriately inhibit access by researchers to scientific data. This incident involving late intervention by leading American scientific institutions was an example of the breakdown in coordination between the Office of Patents and Trademarks, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, the Department, and the scientific community. STH and the Summit of the Americas Ten of the 23 initiatives adopted at the 1994 Summit of the Americas in Miami call for significant involvement of the STH communities in cooperative efforts throughout the hemisphere. In addition, the 1998 Summit Plan of Action adopted in Santiago emphasizes the importance of cooperation in health technologies, climate change, telecommunications, mitigation of damage from natural disasters, the role of small- and medium-sized innovative companies, and science and technology in general. These documents provide a framework for the programs financed by the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The United States played a leading role in developing these documents. Although the career Foreign Service Officer with responsibility for developing and presenting the U.S. position had little background in STH-related issues, he skillfully mobilized the capabilities of many U.S. departments and agencies to support his effort. Then, with the assistance of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, he shaped an agenda that was received enthusiastically by Latin American governments. Terrorism and Forensics The terrorist bombings of the World Trade Center in New York, a U.S. Air Force housing complex in Saudi Arabia, and U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania have dramatically increased the attention of the Department and other departments and agencies to terrorist threats. A critical aspect of the U.S. response to such incidents is a strong commitment to find and punish the perpetrators. The Department believes that each forensic success followed by apprehension and prosecution will help deter future terrorist attacks. Although the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense, and other departments and agencies have the technical capabilities for Investigating terrorist incidents, the Department plays a key leadership and facilitating role in Washington and abroad. The Department coordinates the activities of the Technical Working Group involving 40 departments and agencies that supports development of new technological capabilities to combat terror. ism, while ambassadors and staffs in the countries of concern provide an essential interface with local authorities both during the immediate response to incidents and during subsequent investigations. Since terrorist attacks could occur in almost every country, the importance of FSOs and other Department officials having a familiarity with the forensic sciences as applied to terrorism is clear.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State At the same time, American specialists are a cornerstone of the international STH communities, communities that share a common culture across national borders and are thus themselves a force in the conduct of foreign policy. Shared concerns are reflected, for example, in a large number of bilateral STH cooperative agreements, an expanding array of multilateral arrangements that promote large numbers of research projects, evolving multilateral regimes that help limit the worldwide spread of dangerous materials and technologies, and international responses to many types of problems that threaten the long-term security of populations throughout the world. The development of such international arrangements that facilitate the initiation and implementation of STH programs and of those that constrain harmful and dangerous activities is of high priority. (Table 1-1 and Figure 1-1, exemplifying the international reach of the American STH community, portray technology exports and scientific publications authored jointly by researchers from different countries.) In all of these areas, the Department can play a key TABLE 1-1 Increase in Internationally Coauthored Scientific and Technical Articles   All Articles with Authors from the Countrya Internationally Coauthored (% of total) Country of Author 1981 1995 1981 1995 United States 132,278 142,792 8 19 United Kingdomb 30,794 32,980 13 29 Former USSR states 29,610 21,749 3 26 Germany 26,837 30,654 14 33 Japan 25,088 39,498 5 14 France 18,567 23,811 15 34 Canada 14,440 17,359 17 31 India 11,725 7,851 5 15 Italy 7,803 14,117 16 35 Netherlands 5,993 9,239 17 35 Sweden 5,846 7,190 18 39 Switzerland 4,801 5,896 27 48 Israel 3,698 4,322 22 37 China 1,100 6,200 13 29 a Data include all scientific and technical articles in natural science and engineering fields. b Data for Hong Kong are included with United Kingdom in 1981. SOURCES: Institute for Scientific Information, Science Citation Index; CHI Research, Inc., Science Indicators database; and National Science Foundation, unpublished tabulations.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State FIGURE 1-1 High-tech exports. Source: Appendix Table 6-5, Science and Engineering Indicators—1998, National Science Foundation. role in promoting political and economic objectives of the U.S. Government that encompass interests of the American STH communities. Precisely because STH developments are a pervasive global force, they cannot be isolated from the fundamental workings of foreign policy, and effective foreign policy must reflect a comprehensive approach within

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State the Department to integrating STH competence into policy and program formulation and execution. INADEQUACY OF THE U.S. RESPONSE TO THE STH CHALLENGE Since the 1950s, technically trained personnel in specialized offices within the Department have addressed many aspects of STH that impinge on foreign policy and have assisted many departments and agencies, industry, academia, and other nongovernmental organizations in conducting international STH programs. For a short period 40 years ago, there was a Science Advisor to the Secretary; at other times ''science" has been included in the title of an undersecretary, reflecting a special responsibility in this area. Since 1974, an assistant secretary, serving as the Director of OES, has been a focal point for many civilian-oriented STH activities (see Box 1–2), while other bureaus have led efforts concerning STH-related issues with significant military or economic aspects. Of special relevance is the recent absorption by the Department of the responsibilities and staff of ACDA, including more than 100 specialists with high levels of technical skills. Additional units of the Department play important roles in handling STH issues of interest to international organizations and to the U.S. intelligence community. STH developments are of considerable importance at many U.S. embassies and missions to international organizations. More than 200 Department positions overseas are designated to deal with STH-related matters on either a full- or a part-time basis as of July 1999, as discussed in BOX 1–2 Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs SEC. 9 (a) There is established within the Department of State a Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. There shall be an Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall be the head of the Bureau and who shall have responsibility for matters relating to oceans, environmental, scientific, fisheries, wildlife, and conservation affairs and for such other related duties as the Secretary may from time to time designate. SOURCE: Excerpted from the Department of State Appropriations Authorization Act of 1973 (P.L. 93–126; 87 Stat. 453)

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Chapter 4 of this report. In addition, many FSNs (i.e., foreign nationals serving as embassy employees) also support such activities. FSOs occupy many of the most important policy positions within the Department, including a number that are heavily engaged in dealing with STH-related issues. FSOs occupy almost all overseas positions designated as STH positions. At the same time, most FSOs are much more adept at handling political, economic, consular, public diplomacy, and administrative issues than grappling with complex STH topics that do not match their backgrounds. Also, political appointees, civil servants, and specialists assigned from other departments and agencies play significant roles in addressing STH-related issues. Some of these officials have strong educational backgrounds and extensive experience relevant to their STH responsibilities, but others do not. Some fully appreciate the foreign policy considerations surrounding STH developments, whereas others are weak in this area. For more than two decades, the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) has been aware of the need for focused efforts to acquaint FSOs and other Department personnel with STH developments of special relevance to foreign policy. Many short courses have been offered on various aspects of STH, and STH developments are increasingly covered as minor elements in longer-term courses for both junior and senior FSOs. However, FSI has considerable difficulty attracting key personnel to participate in specialized STH training since such personnel usually are fully occupied with operational responsibilities, and it is not easy to arrange their release for training assignments. The striking difference between the hesitant attitudes toward training within the Department and the enthusiastic support for training prevalent in industry and the military is discussed in Chapter 3. Despite the commitment by the Department of many positions to STH activities, the recruitment of technical talent by a number of offices of the Department, and training programs initiated by FSI to upgrade STH competence, the Department's record in integrating STH capabilities into the development and implementation of foreign policy has not been commensurate with the growing importance of foreign policy issues with STH content. This reality is reflected in the request of the Secretary for this study and in comments to the committee by dozens of well-informed observers from within and outside the Department. The record of integration is stronger in some areas (e.g., military affairs, arms control, environmental diplomacy) than others (e.g., basic science, global industrial interests, nonnuclear energy). Yet even in the areas of greatest strength, there are gaps in capabilities, and efforts to use technical talent that is available within and outside the U.S. Government have been uneven. Too often, STH considerations are considered simply as minor

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State appendages to foreign policy discussions, and many international STH programs are handled as a special category of activities only vaguely related to the implementation of U.S. foreign policy. The lack of a stronger commitment by the Department to bringing STH considerations into the mainstream of foreign policy formulation and implementation may result in the loss of specific opportunities to take advantage of America's extensive STH capabilities. At present, STH competence does not receive recognition as an important aspect of the culture of the Foreign Service, a shortcoming that is reflected in several ways: STH activities are not high on the agendas of senior Department officials, nor does STH competence weigh heavy during recruitment, training, assignment, and promotion of FSOs. Thus, with occasional exceptions, the most highly talented FSOs are ill equipped for and have little incentive to seek assignments in STH-related positions. Many senior Department officers have little motivation to pay attention to STH-related issues, which may require delving into unfamiliar technical content with limited personal rewards for successful mastery of complex issues. This attitude at senior levels sends an important signal to more junior officers that the STH content of issues is not important. International STH programs of interest to other departments and agencies and to the private sector often receive low priority within the Department. The Department's primary focus on immediate political, economic, and security issues, important as they may be, frequently results in delays in launching STH programs with potential political as well as technical payoffs for the United States. Stimulating greater interest in STH should be high on the Department's agenda in responding to the demands of modern diplomacy. ADJUSTING TO THE CHANGING DIPLOMATIC AGENDA As STH developments become an ever more critical factor in shaping future U.S. relations with many countries and in offering opportunities for global leadership by the United States, the Department needs to build on existing capabilities and develop a more concerted approach for drawing on external STH resources, specifically: The Secretary and other senior officials, with the assistance of their staffs, should know when to seek advice on the STH aspects of important issues, how to frame key questions, and how to identify critical emerging

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State STH-related issues and important technical uncertainties for consideration by STH experts. STH advice must be presented to these officials in an understandable form and must be meaningful within a foreign policy context. All FSOs, as well as other Department officials with foreign policy responsibilities, need a high level of sensitivity in recognizing the importance and relevance of STH-related issues. They should know where to turn within the Department, other departments and agencies, or elsewhere to obtain authoritative information for addressing technical issues. The Department needs in-house clusters of STH expertise that can respond promptly to complicated queries and can help frame technical issues when external advice is needed. These in-house staffs should be skilled in identifying emerging issues. Also, they should be able to translate technical advice into contexts and language familiar within the Department and to present advice in ways that will trigger appropriate action. Strengthened U.S. embassy staffs should help ensure that the work of the embassies reflects a sound appreciation of STH developments that affect bilateral and multilateral relations, should interact effectively with STH officials and other leaders of the local STH communities both to share information and to help facilitate cooperative activities, and should disseminate information to interested U.S. constituencies on STH developments with foreign policy significance. Achieving these objectives will depend on (1) a higher-level commitment of the Secretary and other senior officials to create a strengthened organizational and policy framework and (2) a motivated and qualified workforce that encourages and facilitates the integration of STH developments with foreign policy formulation and implementation. THE DEPARTMENT'S EXPERIENCE WITH CROSSCUTTING PROGRAMS During the past several decades, the Department has created a number of bureaus and programs with activities that cut across the interests of many countries and international organizations. As previously noted, for four decades, science and technology have also been considered as a crosscutting or "functional" program deserving a special organizational home; but when OES was established to serve this purpose, STH considerations already extended across other functional programs as well. Many STH activities have remained within the purview of these other functional areas (e.g., export control), some have gained considerable prominence within the newly established OES (e.g., fisheries), and some simply have

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State been given low priority (e.g., nonnuclear energy developments). During the 1990s, with reductions of the Department's staff and budget, its capability to maintain a strong, broadly based STH capability waned. A number of senior officials of the Department have characterized the current lack of recognition within the Department of the importance of STH developments to foreign policy as analogous to the situation with economics several decades ago, well before economic competence was accepted as a cornerstone of U.S. diplomatic efforts. Past efforts of the Department to elevate the status of economics and of environmental diplomacy within the Department are instructive in two respects. In both cases they succeeded in focusing the immediate attention of the Department on steps to be taken to enhance its performance in these areas. Secondly, they suggest approaches that might help gain greater recognition throughout the Department, and throughout the entire U.S. foreign policy community, of the essential role of STH capability. Specifically, in 1986, Secretary George Shultz announced the following enhancements to the personnel and management policies of the Foreign Service in response to the growing importance of foreign economic policies and the increasing complexity of international trade and finance issues: Establish rigorous, functionally oriented recruitment standards for FSOs assigned to the economic personnel cone. Provide increased opportunities for FSOs to gain relevant work experience, especially as junior officers, and increase the number of advanced economic training assignments available to midlevel officers. Give the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (EB) a significant role in the management of the Foreign Service's economic talent, including recommendations for all midcareer and senior economic positions, both abroad and within the Department. Expand opportunities for economic officers to compete for midlevel and senior program management positions, including chief-of-mission assignments. Accelerate office automation in EB.1 Then in 1996, Secretary Warren Christopher, largely in response to the many global environmental issues being raised within the United States and at international forums around the world, issued a wide-ranging memorandum on "Integrating Environmental Issues into the 1    "Shultz Wants Greater Role for Economics, Economics Officers." State no. 292 (August–September 1986): 2–6.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Department's Core Foreign Policy" that set the stage for many policy and administrative actions throughout the Department. This was followed by a more detailed report on those environmental issues and activities that should be of priority concern to the Department. The memorandum, report, and follow-on actions. to elaborate policies and to strengthen the personnel capabilities of the Department in the environmental field were watershed events in enhancing the environmental diplomacy efforts of the United States. Two particularly significant implementation steps with both positive and negative consequences were (1) the establishment abroad of environmental hubs that provide reporting and representation functions concerning environmental issues in selected regions of the world and (2) the diversion of personnel positions that had been assigned for work on science and technology cooperation on a broad basis to provide increased staff for more narrowly focused environmental diplomacy activities within the Department.2 In sum, the Department has had experience in making organizational adjustments and devoting personnel resources to crosscutting topics that are perceived as deserving greater emphasis. Sometimes, such adjustments are initiated internally, but more often they respond to pressures from Congress or other external forces. The economics and environmental models cited above may provide a good point of departure for a reinvigoration of STH-related efforts on a broad basis. Substantively, STH-related issues are more akin to economics than to environmental concerns in that they touch on so many aspects of foreign policy. They should not be considered simply a concern of a narrowly focused constituency searching for a seat at the foreign policy table but rather should be of keen interest to all participants in the foreign policy process. DRAWING ON THE STH STRENGTHS OF THE UNITED STATES America's capabilities in STH are among the nation's strongest assets in promoting a foreign policy that will create a more secure, prosperous, and democratic world for the benefit of the American people. Individual genius and American entrepreneurship have led to a period of unrivaled technology-driven economic growth within the United States. Many of the world's best scientists and engineers, as well as tens of thousands of 2    Warren Christopher, "Memorandum to All Under and Assistant Secretaries: Integrating Environment Issues into the Department's Core Foreign Policy Goals," February 14, 1996; Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, Environmental Diplomacy: The Environment and U.S. Foreign Policy, Department of State Publication 10470, April 1997.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State STH-oriented foreign students, continue to move to the United States for temporary or permanent residence each year. Thus, for the foreseeable future, with the United States using both its native human resources and expertise from abroad, American science and technology will continue to be a pacesetter for the world. The Department is in an excellent position to draw on the capabilities of the U.S. STH community to obtain authoritative information and considered advice on complex issues such as limitations on rocket technologies, health and environmental implications of trade in genetically modified food products, and the potential of new types of energy sources. Moreover, the Department has the opportunity to promote new international STH programs—in space, on the oceans, in laboratories, and elsewhere—that serve the mutual interests of the United States and partner countries. Also, the Department can call on the STH communities to provide early warning and suggested policies on major issues that affect many nations, such as those whose population growth rates are high, food supplies constrained, and land and water resources overtaxed. In sum, the nation's foreign policy agenda is constantly facing new challenges, many driven by STH developments at home and abroad; but the culture of the Foreign Service, the Department, and indeed the foreign affairs community in general places relatively low value on STH skills. Although the Department can draw on the extensive STH resources of the country, there must be greater STH awareness throughout the Department and adequate mechanisms within it for utilizing external STH resources in a timely and effective manner. Success in the development of skills to handle issues with STH content by employees throughout the Department will be a significant determinant of how U.S. foreign policy benefits from STH advances that have propelled American economic and national security capabilities to the forefront and have made American science the envy of the world.