APPENDIX C
Biographies of Committee Members

COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND HEALTH ASPECTS OF THE FOREIGN POLICY AGENDA OF THE UNITED STATES

Robert A. Frosch (Chair) is a theoretical physicist by education (A.B., Columbia College, 1947, and Ph.D., Columbia University, 1952). He conducted research in ocean acoustics and was Director of Hudson Laboratories at Columbia University. He later served as Director for Nuclear Test Detection and Deputy Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Department of Defense; Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development (ASNR&D); Assistant Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Associate Director for Applied Oceanography of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI); Administrator of NASA; President of the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES); and Vice President of General Motors Corporation (GM) in charge of research laboratories. He retired from GM in 1993 before joining the John F. Kennedy School of Government of Harvard University, where he is an associate in the Robert and Renee Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, and a fellow or member of a number of professional societies.



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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State APPENDIX C Biographies of Committee Members COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND HEALTH ASPECTS OF THE FOREIGN POLICY AGENDA OF THE UNITED STATES Robert A. Frosch (Chair) is a theoretical physicist by education (A.B., Columbia College, 1947, and Ph.D., Columbia University, 1952). He conducted research in ocean acoustics and was Director of Hudson Laboratories at Columbia University. He later served as Director for Nuclear Test Detection and Deputy Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Department of Defense; Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development (ASNR&D); Assistant Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Associate Director for Applied Oceanography of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI); Administrator of NASA; President of the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES); and Vice President of General Motors Corporation (GM) in charge of research laboratories. He retired from GM in 1993 before joining the John F. Kennedy School of Government of Harvard University, where he is an associate in the Robert and Renee Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, and a fellow or member of a number of professional societies.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State John D. Axtell is Lynn Distinguished Professor of Agronomy at Purdue University. He received his B.S. (1957) and M.S. (1965) from the University of Minnesota and Ph.D. (1967) in the area of genetics from the University of Wisconsin. He has had a distinguished career as a plant geneticist and educator and is considered a global leader in sorghum nutritional quality research, particularly in protein quality and digestibility. He pioneered and led the discovery of naturally occurring high-lysine mutants of sorghum in a systematic survey of the world sorghum collection. He later produced high-lysine mutations through chemical mutagenesis and carried out an extensive breeding program to transfer the high-lysine gene in an array of genetic backgrounds. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1982) and has served as Chairman of Class VI (1994–1997) and Section 62 (1987–1990) of the Academy. He is a member of the McKnight Foundation Collaborative Crop Research Program (1993–1999) and of the Raymond and Mary Baker Council for Excellence in Agronomy at Iowa State University. He has served on several review missions both for national research programs in various developing countries and a number of international research centers. Harry Barnes is Director of the Conflict Resolution Program of the Carter Center and Chair of the Centers Human Rights Committee. He joined the Carter Center in 1994 as Director of its Conflict Resolution Program. He also oversees staff activities to promote human rights and prevent abuses and works closely with the center's International Human Rights Council. He was Ambassador to Romania from 1974 to 1977, Ambassador to India from 1981 to 1985, and Ambassador to Chile from 1985 to 1988 during the last years of the Pinochet regime. Among other assignments, he served as Director-General and Director of Personnel of the U.S. Foreign Service and as Deputy Executive Secretary for the Department of State. He began his 30-year career with the Foreign Service as an officer in Bombay, Prague, Moscow, Kathmandu, Bucharest, and Washington, D.C. He retired from the Department of State in 1988. He earned a bachelor's degree from Amherst College and a master's degree from Columbia University's Russian Institute. Gail H. Cassell is Vice President of Infectious Diseases Research at Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research Laboratories, in Indianapolis. She was previously the Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry in Birmingham. A recent past president of the American Society for Microbiology, she just completed a three-year term as a member of the National Institutes of Health Director's Advisory Committee and as a member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Allergy and Infectious Diseases of NIH. She was named to the original Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and later served as chair of this board. A member of the Institute of Medicine, she serves on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. Beyond her scientific research work, she has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation on biomedical research and public health, serving as Chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology and previously serving as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect research costs to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Sue E. Eckert is Senior Fellow at the Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies at Brown University and Visiting Fellow at the Institute for International Economics in Washington, D.C. From 1993 to 1997, she was Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration, where she administered a range of U.S. export control and defense industrial base programs. Previously she served on the professional staff of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the U.S. House of Representatives, specializing in technology transfer, international trade, and national security and nonproliferation export control issues. She has also worked extensively with business and nonprofit groups as an independent trade consultant, as well as lectured on foreign policy and national security decision-making issues. Robert W. Fri is Director of the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution and Senior Fellow Emeritus at Resources for the Future, where he served as President from 1986 to 1995. He is a director of the American Electric Power Company and of Hagler Bailly, Inc., an international consulting firm specializing in natural resources and environmental issues. He is also a member of the University of Chicago Board of Governors for the Argonne National Laboratory and a trustee of Science Service, Inc., publisher of Science News and organizer of the Intel Science Talent Search. Earlier in his career he served as the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and of the Energy Research and Development Administration. David Hamburg is President Emeritus at Carnegie Corporation of New York, after having been President from 1983 to 1997. He received his A.B. (1944) and his M.D. (1947) degrees from Indiana University. He was Chief, Adult Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, from 1958 to 1961; Professor and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences from 1961

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State to 1972; Reed-Hodgson Professor of Human Biology at Stanford University from 1972 to 1976; President of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 1975–1980; Director of the Division of Health Policy Research and Education and John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy at Harvard University, 1980–983. He served as President and then Chairman of the Board (1984–1986) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was Chairman of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (1986–1996). He is a member of the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Visiting Professor at Harvard Medical School's Department of Social Medicine, and Co-chair (with Cyrus Vance) of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. He received the American Psychiatric Association's Distinguished Service Award in 1991, the Presidential Medal of Freedom at the White House in September 1996, the International Peace Academy's 25th Anniversary Special Award in December 1996, the Achievement in Children and Public Policy Award from the Society for Research in Child Development in 1997, and the National Academy of Sciences' Public Welfare Medal in 1998. Ronald F. Lehman II is Director of the Center for Global Security Research at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He works for the University of California and is also Chairman of the Governing Board of the International Science and Technology Center, an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Moscow. He serves as a member of the Department of Defense Threat Reduction Advisory Committee. In 1995, he was appointed to the five-member President's Advisory Board on Arms Proliferation Policy. Previously, he was Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency from 1989 to 1993. Earlier he served in the Defense Department as Assistant Secretary for International Security Policy, in the State Department as U.S. Chief Negotiator on Strategic Offensive Arms, and in the White House as Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. He has also served on the National Security Council staff as a Senior Director, in the Pentagon as Deputy Assistant Secretary, on the professional staff of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, and in Vietnam with the United States Army. He received his B.A. from Claremont McKenna College in 1968 and his Ph.D. from the Claremont Graduate University in 1975. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University. Thomas E. Lovejoy is Counselor to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs and is currently on a

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State reimbursed detail as Chief Biodiversity Advisor for the World Bank as well as Lead Specialist for Environment for the Latin American and Caribbean region. He holds a B.S. and a Ph.D. (both in biology) from Yale. From 1973 to 1987 he directed the program of the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. and moved to the Smithsonian in 1987 as Assistant Secretary for External Affairs. He served on the White House Science Council in 1988 and the President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology from 1989 to 1992. In 1993 he served as Science Advisor to the Secretary of the Interior. He co-leads a 20-year-old research project on forest fragmentation in Amazonian Brazil and is active in biodiversity science and conservation. David D. Newsom received a B.A. from the University of California-Berkeley in 1938 and an M.S. from Columbia University School of Journalism in 1940. After entering the Foreign Service in 1947, he served in Karachi, Oslo, Baghdad, and London. He was appointed Ambassador to Libya in 1965, to Indonesia in 1973, and to the Philippines in 1977. In Washington he served as Officer-in-Charge of Arabian Peninsula Affairs (1955–1960), Director of the Office of Northern African Affairs (1962–1965), Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (1969–1973), Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs (1978–1981), and Interim Secretary of State (1981). After his retirement from the Department of State in 1981, he served as Director of the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy and Associate Dean of the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. In 1991, he was appointed Cumming Professor of International Studies and Diplomacy at the University of Virginia, a post from which he retired in 1998. Roland W. Schmitt is President Emeritus, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Senior Vice President (retired) for Science and Technology, General Electric. He is a past member and Chairman of the National Science Board, the governing body of the National Science Foundation. He is also a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, and a foreign associate of the Engineering Academy of Japan. He received his B.A., B.S. (1947), and M.A. (1948) from the University of Texas and his Ph.D. (1951) in physics from Rice University. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He is Chairman-Emeritus of the Board of Governors of the American Institute of Physics and a past Chair of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents. He holds 12 honorary doctorates and Rice University's Distinguished Alumni Award.

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State Eugene B. Skolnikoff, Professor of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), has focused his research and teaching interests in the field of international affairs, with a strong emphasis on the political changes brought about by rapid scientific and technological change. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering at MIT (1950), subsequently a B.A. and M.A. in politics and economics at Oxford studying on a Rhodes Scholarship (1952), and then a Ph.D. in political science from MIT in 1965. He worked on the White House staff in the Office of the Science Adviser in the Eisenhower, Kennedy (1958–1963), and Carter (1977–1981) administrations, dealing there and in his activities at MIT with foreign policy issues. From 1970 to 1974 he was Head of the MIT Political Science Department and from 1972 to 1987 Director of the Center for International Studies. He has also taught at Yale and the Fletcher School at Tufts. He has been a consultant to U.S. Government agencies, including the Departments of State, Energy, and Defense; the National Science Foundation; and the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, as well as to international organizations, private foundations, and industry. He is presently Chair of the Board of the UN University Institute for New Technology (INTECH) in Maastricht, Holland, and was a member of the Board of Trustees of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, an American foundation, from 1979 to 1987, serving as Chair from 1980 to 1986. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has published numerous articles and several books, including The Elusive Transformation: Science, Technology, and the Evolution of International Politics (Princeton University Press, 1993). Philip M. Smith, partner, McGeary and Smith, is a science and technology policy advisor and consultant. He chairs the External Advisory Council of the National Computational Science Alliance, is chair or member of other national and international science advisory committees, and serves on corporate boards of small technology startup companies. He was Executive Officer of the National Research Council from 1981 to 1994. He was an Associate Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, 1975–1981. Earlier he was the General Science Branch Chief, Office of Management and Budget, and was Director of Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation. He is writing a book about science and government with Michael McGeary. Robert M. White is a principal of the Washington Advisory Group and a Senior Fellow at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and the H. John Heinz Center for Science, Economics, and Envi-

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The Pervasive Role of Science, Technology, and Health in Foreign Policy: Imperatives for the Department of State ronment. He was President of the National Academy of Engineering from 1983 to 1995. Prior to that, he was President of UCAR. He was appointed Chief of the U.S. Weather Bureau and was the first Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. He was the Karl T. Compton Lecturer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1995–1996. He has been awarded the Vannevar Bush Award, the Tyler Prize for environmental achievement, the Charles E. Lindbergh Award for technology and environment, the Rockefeller Public Service Award for Protection of Natural Resources, and the International Meteorological Organization Prize. EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS David Challoner, Foreign Secretary, Institute of Medicine Harold Forsen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering F. Sherwood Rowland, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences