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58 Nabhan and Buchmann (1997).

59 Noble and Dirzo (1997); Vitousek et al. (1997); Matson et al. (1997).

60 See, e.g., IGBP (1994); IHDP (1998); DIVERSITAS (1998); and the NRC's "Pathways" report [NRC (1998a)].

61 UNEP et al. (1998); World Bank (1998).

62 Vitousek et al. (1997).

63 Schimel (1994); IPCC (1996); NRC (1994).

64 NRC (1998a).

65 Gleick (1992).

66 Gleick (1998).

67 Nash (1993).

68 Smith et al. (1992).

69 Gleick (1998).

70 Chesapeake Bay, e.g., Costanza and Greer (1998); Columbia Basin, e.g., Lee (1993), and NRC (1996).

71 E.g., Mitchell and Hanemann (1994).

72 NRC (1991a).

73 Chameides and Cowling (1995).

74 Chameides et al. (1994).

75 IPCC (1995).

76 Graedel and Crutzen (1993); Andreae (1993); Rodhe and Herrera (1988).

77 Galloway et al. (1995); Vitousek et al. (1997).

78 Schimel (1994); Townsend et al. (1996).

79 Aber et al. (1989); Aber et al. (1995); Matson et al. (1999).

80 Chameides and Cowling (1995).

81 Hornung and Skeffington (1993).

82 Yagi and Minami (1990).

83 NRC (1992a).

84 Vitousek et al. (1997); Chapin et al. (1997).

85 Ausubel (1996); Waggoner (1994).

86 See chapter 2 NRC (1998a).

87 Daily (1997).

88 Risch et al. (1986); Pimental and Edwards (1982); Matson et al. (1997); Thies and Tscharntke (1999).

89 Matson et al. (1997); Crosson (1995).

90 Several decades, e.g., Odum (1994), Watt (1966), and Holling (1978); recent years, e.g., the World in Transition reports of the German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU 1993–1997); see also Chapter 6, Box 6.1.

91 Bell et al. (1994), p. 362; see also Schultz (1964).



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