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ELECTROMETALLURGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DOE SPENT FUEL TREATMENT: An Assessment of Waste Form Development and Characterization
plutonium. This waste form results from the use of zeolite 4A for extraction of fission products and actinides from the internally recycled EMT chloride processing salt.3 Early development of the CWF was based on hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of the zeolite 4A with a borosilicate glass binder to produce a densified waste form. Subsequent R&D showed that a significant fraction of the zeolite 4A was converted to sodalite during HIP. Further evaluation led to the selection of glass-bonded sodalite as the reference CWF.
This report provides discussion of critical issues and outstanding questions related to the activities shown in Figure 2 , as well as committee comments and recommendations. This analysis is based on several recent presentations by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and documents covering the EMT Program, the committee's continued monitoring of ANL progress during the last 4 years, and published reports on the EMT process. This report assesses the technical consistency and comprehensiveness of the EMT activities that support ultimate acceptance of EMT waste forms by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management.
FIGURE 2. Waste qualification activities involve several organizations. DOE = U.S. Department of Energy; RW = DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management; NE = DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy; EM = DOE's Office of Environmental Energy, WASRD = Waste Acceptance Systems Requirements Document, MGDSWAC = Mined Geologic Disposal Waste Acceptance Criteria.
Waste Form Acceptance Requirements for Molten Salt Electrorefiningof Spent Nuclear Fuel, NT Technical Memorandum No. 8, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 1995, pp. 8-9.