Blazer DG, Landerman LR, Fillenbaum G, Homer R. Health services access and use among older adults in North Carolina urban versus rural residents. American Journal of Public Health 85:1384–1390, 1995.

Bradbury RC, Stearns FE, Steen PM. Inter-hospital variations in admission severity-adjusted hospital mortality and morbidity. Health Services Research 26(4):407–424, 1991.

Brook RH, Kamberg CJ, Lohr KN, Goldberg GA, Keeler, EB, Newhouse JP. Quality of ambulatory care: Epidemiology and comparison by insurance status and income. Medical Care 28:392–433, 1990.

Bunker JP. Surgical manpower. A comparison of operations and surgeons in the United States and in England and Wales. New England Journal of Medicine 282(3):135–144, 1970.

Case Management Society of America. Standards of Practice for Case Management. Little Rock, AR: Case Management Society of America, 1996.

Cherkin DC, Rosenblatt RA, Hart LG, et al. The use of medical resources by residency-trained family physicians and general internists. Medical Care 25(6):455–469, 1987.

Choti MA, Bowman, HM, Pitt, HA, et al. Should hepatic resections be performed at high-volume referral centers? Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 2:11–20, 1998.


DesHarnais SI. Enrollment in and disenrollment from health maintenance organizations by Medicaid recipients. Health Care Financing Review 6:39–50, 1985.

Dowd B, Christianson J, Feldman R, et al. Issues regarding health plan payments under Medicare and recommendations for reform. Milbank Quarterly 70:423–453, 1992.


Eisenberg JM. Doctors' Decisions and the Cost of Medical Care: The Reasons for Doctors' Practice Patterns and Ways to Change Them. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1986.

Ellis RP, Pope GC, Iezzoni L, et al. Diagnosis-based risk adjustment for Medicare capitation payments. Health Care Financing Review 17:101–128, 1996.

Elnicki DM, Morris DK, Shockcor WT. Patient-perceived barriers to preventive health care among indigent, rural Appalachian patients. Archives of Internal Medicine 155:421–424, 1995.

Employee Benefits Research Institute. EBRI Databook on Employee Benefits . Washington, DC: Employee Benefits Research Institute, 1997.

Erlich P. Informal support networks meet health needs of rural elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work 9:85, 1985.

Espehaug B , Havelin LI, Engesaeter LB, et al. The effect of hospital-type and operating volume on the survival of hip replacements. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavia 70(1): 12–18, 1999.


Fama T, Fox P , White LA. Do HMOs care for the chronically ill? Health Affairs 14:234–243, 1995.

Farley DE, Ozminkowski RJ. Volume-outcome relationships and in hospital mortality: The effect of changes in volume over time. Medical Care 30(1):77–94, 1992.

Feinglass J, Martin GJ, Sen A. The financial effect of physician practice style on hospital resource use. Health Services Research 26(2):183–205, 1991.

Fine MJ, Orloff JJ, Arisumi D, et al. Prognosis of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. American Journal of Medicine 88(5N):1N–8N, 1990.

Folland S, Stano M. Sources of small area variations in the use of medical care. Journal of Health Economics 8(1):85–107, 1989.

Folland S, Stano M. Small area variations: A critical review of propositions, methods, and evidence. Medical Care Review 47(4):419–465, 1990.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement