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--> The Advanced Technology Program: Challenges and Opportunities Charles W. Wessner, Editor NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on science and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Limited copies are available from: Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy National Research Council 1055 Thomas Jefferson, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20007 202-334-2200 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) International Standard Book Number 0-309-06775-8 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> For the National Research Council, this project was overseen by the Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy (STEP), a standing board of the NRC established by the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine in 1991. The mandate of the STEP Board is to integrate understanding of scientific, technological, and economic elements in the formulation of national policies to promote the economic well-being of the United States. A distinctive characteristic of STEP's approach is its frequent interactions with public and private sector decision-makers. STEP bridges the disciplines of business management, engineering, economics, and the social sciences to bring diverse expertise to bear on pressing public policy questions. The members of the STEP Boards* and the NRC staff are listed below: Dale Jorgenson, Chair Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts M. Kathy Behrens Managing Partner BancBoston Robertson Stephens San Francisco, California James F. Gibbons Professor of Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California Bronwyn H. Hall Associate Professor of Economics University of California Berkeley, California Ralph Landau Consulting Professor of Economics Stanford University Stanford, California Richard Levin President Yale University New Haven, Connecticut William J. Spencer, Vice-Chair Chairman SEMATECH Austin, Texas Mark B. Myers Senior Vice President Xerox Corporation Stamford, Connecticut Edward E. Penhoet Dean, School of Public Health University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, California A. Michael Spence Dean, Graduate School of Business Stanford University Stanford, California Joseph E. Stiglitz Senior Vice-President for Development Economics The World Bank Washington, D.C. Alan Wm. Wolff Managing Partner Dewey Ballantine Washington, D.C. * As of September 1999
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--> Staff Stephen A. Merrill Executive Director Charles W. Wessner Program Director John B. Horrigan Staff Officer Craig M. Schultz Program Associate Laura T. Holliday Program Associate McAlister T. Clabaugh Program Associate
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--> NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL BOARD ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ECONOMIC POLICY Sponsors The National Research Council gratefully acknowledges the support of the following sponsors: U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Energy National Cancer Institute National Institute of Standards and Technology National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Science Foundation Sandia National Laboratories Electric Power Research Institute Kulicke and Soffa Industries Merck and Company Milliken Industries Motorola Nortel Procter and Gamble Silicon Valley Group Incorporated Advanced Micro Devices Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the project sponsors.
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--> STEERING COMMITTEE FOR GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES Gordon Moore, Chair Chairman Emeritus Intel Corporation M. Kathy Behrens Managing Partner BancBoston Robertson Stephens and STEP Board Gordon Binder Chief Executive Officer Amgen, Inc. Michael Borrus Co-Director Berkeley Roundtable on International Economics Iain Cockburn Professor of Commerce and Business Administration University of British Columbia Kenneth Flamm Dean Rusk Chair in International Affairs LBJ School of Public Affairs University of Texas at Austin James F. Gibbons Professor of Engineering Stanford University and STEP Board William J. Spencer, Vice-Chair Chairman, SEMATECH and STEP Board W. Clark McFadden Partner Dewey Ballantine Mark B. Myers Senior Vice President Xerox Corporation and STEP Board Richard Nelson George Blumenthal Professor of International and Public Affairs Columbia University Charles Trimble Vice Chairman Trimble Navigation John P. Walker Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Axys Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Patrick Windham Lecturer Stanford University Consultant Science and Technology Policy Project Staff Charles W. Wessner Study Director McAlister T. Clabaugh Program Associate John B. Horrigan Staff Officer Laura T. Holliday Program Associate
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--> Contents I. Preface 1 II. Introduction 11 III. Proceedings Welcome Charles Wessner, National Research Council 26 Introduction to the Symposium Bill Spencer, Sematech 28 Opening Remarks Ray Kammer, National Institute of Standards and Technology 31 Panel I: History and Current Legislative Perspective on the ATP Program Moderator: Clark McFadden, Dewey Ballantine 37 An Overview of the Program's History and Objectives Christopher Hill, George Mason University 38
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--> Perspectives on the Program Loren Yager, General Accounting Office (GAO) Richard Russell, House Committee on Science David Goldston, Office of Representative Sherman Boehlert Claude Barfield, American Enterprise Institute James Turner, House Committee on Science 42 Panel II: Program Objectives Moderator: Henry Kelly, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy 51 Decision Making: The ATP Selection Process Lura Powell, National Institute of Standards and Technology 53 Mission Synergies Jeffrey Schloss, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health 56 Industry Perspectives I David Gibson, X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc 59 Industry Perspectives II Richard Ramseyer, Honeywell Technology Center 63 Discussants: William Newall, Axys Pharmaceuticals, Inc Jeff Grove, House Committee on Science Discussion Panel III: Research Perspectives on the ATP Moderator: Richard Nelson, Columbia University 70 Assessment of the ATP Rosalie Ruegg, National Institute of Standards and Technology 71 Performance Measures as Indicators of ATP Effects on Long-term Business Success Lynne Zucker, University of California at Los Angeles Michael Darby, University of California at Los Angeles 81 Discussant: J. C. Spender, New York Institute of Technology
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--> Panel IV: Capital Markets and New Technologies Moderator: Kenneth Flamm, University of Texas at Austin 86 Venture Capital and the ATP Joshua Lerner, Harvard Business School 88 A Venture Capitalist Perspective Todd Spener, Charter Financial 90 Small Firm Experience in the ATP Mitch Eggers, Genometrix, Inc Mark Pittenger, Osiris Therapeutics 92 Discussion Panel V: Extending Assessment—Challenges and Opportunities Moderator: Iain Cockburn, University of British Columbia 98 Information Needs for Measuring Spillovers from Public-Private R&D Partnering Maryellen Kelley, Carnegie Mellon and National Institute of Standards and Technology 99 Assessing Productivity Impacts in Health Care Information William Lehr, Columbia University 105 Comparing ATP and non-ATP Research Joint Ventures Nicholas Vonortas, George Washington University 108 Panel VI: Observations and Policy Issues Moderator: Charles Wessner, National Research Council 111 ATP Assessment: Looking Back and Looking Ahead Barry Bozeman, Georgia Institute of Technology 111 The ATP and Legislative Flexibility James Turner, House Committee on Science 113 The ATP and US Technology Policy Richard Nelson, Columbia University 113
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--> The ATP and Program Management J.C. Spender, New York Institute of Technology 114 The ATP and Spillovers Christopher Hill, George Mason University 115 Discussion Concluding Remarks Annex A. Bibliography 119 B. Participants List 123