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1987 Yoder, J.A, C. McClain, J. Blanton, and L. Oey. 1987. Spatial scales in CZCS-chlorophyll imagery of the southeastern U. S. continental shelf. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32:929-941.

1989 Feldman, G., N. Kuring, C. Ng, W. Esaias, C.R. McClain, J. Elrod, N. Maynard, D. Endres, R. Evans, J. Brown, S. Walsh, M. Carle, and G. Podesta. 1989. Ocean color, availability of the global data set. Eos, Trans., AGU 70:634-641.

1993 Sullivan, C.W., K.R. Arrigo, C.R. McClain, J.C. Comiso, and J. Firestone. 1993. Distributions of phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Science 262:1832-1837.

1993 Yoder, J.A., C.R. McClain, G.C. Feldman, and W.E. Esaias. 1993. Annual cycles of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations in the global ocean: A satellite view. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7:181-193.

Global Productivity and Productivity Regimes—The Stepchildren of Ocean Color

Soon after Steeman-Nielsen (1952) introduced the radioactive carbon tracer method to measure primary productivity, biological oceanographers began to use the new productivity observations to speculate about the existence of differing oceanic productivity regimes and to estimate global productivity (Ryther, 1959). Two signal achievements in the estimation of global productivity were Ryther's synthesis (1969) dealing with productivity in different oceanic regimes and the synthesis by Koblentz-Mishke et al. (1970) of all the available radiocarbon productivity data. Both contributions advanced biological oceanography, but under-sampling compromised both efforts.

Global CZCS chlorophyll coverage provided a way to break out of this sampling limitation using the productivity-chlorophyll-light relationship described first by Ryther and Yentsch (1957). High-resolution spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton biomass permitted objective estimates of global primary productivity (see references below) as well as the size and seasonal variability of the various productivity regimes or biogeochemical provinces of the world ocean (Longhurst, 1998). Arguably the most important scientific contributions of the satellite ocean color breakthrough to date have been improved estimates of global productivity and the birth of an objective ecological geography of the sea.

Global Productivity and Productivity Regimes References

1952 Steemann-Nielsen, E. 1952. The use of radioactive carbon (14C) for measuring organic production in the sea. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 144:38-46.

1957 Ryther, J.H., and C.S. Yentsch. 1957. The estimation of phytoplankton production in the ocean from chlorophyll and light data. Limnol. Oceanogr. 2:281-286.

1959 Ryther, J.H. 1959. Potential productivity of the sea. Science 130: 602-608.

1969 Ryther, J.H. 1969. Photosynthesis and fish production in the sea. Science 166:72-76.

1970 Koblentz-Mishke, O.J., V.V. Volkovinsky, and J.G. Kabanova. 1970. Plankton primary production of the world ocean. Pp. 183-193 in W.S. Wooster (ed.), Scientific Exploration of the South Pacific . National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.

1982 Smith, R.C., R.W. Eppley, and K.S. Baker. 1982. Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in southern California coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images. Mar. Biol. 66:281-288.

1985 Eppley, R.W., E. Stewart, M.R. Abbott, and V. Heyman. 1985. Estimating ocean primary production from satellite chlorophyll, introduction to regional differences and statistics for the Southern California Bight. J. Plankton Res. 7:57-70.

1988 Platt, T., and S. Sathyendranath. 1988. Oceanic primary production: Estimation by remote sensing at local and regional scales. Science 241:1613-1620.

1992 Balch, W.M., R. Evans, J. Brown, G. Feldman, C. McClain, and W. Esaias. 1992. The remote sensing of ocean primary productivity: Use of new data compilation to test satellite algorithms. J. Geophys. Res. 97:2279-2293.

1995 Longhurst, A., S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and C. Caverhill. 1995. An estimate of global primary production in the ocean from satellite radiometer data. J. Plankton Res. 17:1245-1271.

1996 Antoine, D., J.M. Morel, and A. Morel. 1996. Oceanic primary production. 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner chlorophyll). Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10:57-69.

1997 Behrenfeld, M.J., and P.G. Falkowski. 1997. Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnol. Oceanogr . 42:1-20.

1998 Longhurst, A. 1998. Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, San Diego, California. 398 p.

1999 Esaias, W.E., R.L. Iverson, and K. Turpie. 1999. Ocean province classification using ocean color data: Observing biological signatures of variations in physical dynamics. Global Change Biology, in press.

1999 Iverson, R.L., W.E. Esaias, and K. Turpie. 1999. Ocean annual phytoplankton carbon and new production, and annual export production estimated with empirical equations and CZCS data. Global Change Biology , in press.

FOUR SPECIFIC BREAKTHROUGHS

Deep-Sea Diversity

The discovery of high biological diversity in the deep sea in the late 1960s changed the way deep-sea biology was viewed, and sparked theoretical debates on how diversity is maintained in a large, monotonous environment such as the deep sea (see references below). The diversity analyses, set in motion in the 1960s by Howard Sanders and Bob Hessler, were followed up by Paul Dayton, Fred Grassle, Gil Rowe, and Pete Jumars. This work was enhanced by the availability of the submersible Alvin, which gave researchers direct observation and the ability to do in situ benthie experiments. The skill these early workers gained in using Alvin for diversity and metabolic studies made it possible for them to shift rapidly to work on the hydrothermal vents soon after their discovery in 1976.

Alvin changed our perception of the deep sea just as the CZCS satellite changed our perception of the surface ocean. Images of the seafloor—particularly the monotonous, soft-sediment abyssal regimes—documented how different the



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