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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000
TABLE 2 International Indian Ocean Expedition Oceanography Funding by U.S. Institutions (thousand dollars)
University of Washington
University of Hawaii
9 1 2
University of Michigan
NOTE: LDGO = Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory; NAS-NRC = National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council; URI = University of Rhode Island; USAF = United States Air Force; USC = University of Southern California; WXBUR = U.S. Weather Bureau
1998b). From a U.S. perspective, this was the beginning of the International Indian Ocean Expedition. During the first three years of the program, including the 1961 grant, the planning and direction were accomplished by a contract with the National Academy of Sciences. For the remaining four years, 1964-1967, the NSF funded grants on the basis of proposals from the institutions. The overall direction of the program came from the academic scientific community. But within the Foundation, the NSF Coordinating Group on Oceanography (CGO) was established and specifically tasked with the coordination of oceanographic facilities, conversion, construction of ships, and the International Indian Ocean Expedition.
The expenditures for the six years of the IIOE are listed in Table 2, which shows the level of funding for each of the participating institutions. The major participating institutions were: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). The reason for this is not only because these were by far the largest oceanographic institutions, but also because they were also the laboratories with ships large enough to travel to and carry out research in the Indian Ocean. Ship operation costs are included in Table 2.
The IIOE was a very interdisciplinary program, but the major expenditures were for marine geology and geophysics (gravity and magnetics, rock analyses, bathymetry, and sediments), atmospheric circulation and air-sea interaction, oceanic circulation, marine biology, and geochemistry.
The relatively independent nature of the IIOE cruises is highlighted by Edmund (1980) who, in discussing the IIOE geochemical efforts, states, "Data from different cruises could not be contoured together. Hence, the intended division of labor—different areas of the ocean assigned to different groups—led to a database of little use." The same statement does not hold for the extensive work in marine geology and geophysics, which was to prove very useful in the Geological and Geophysical Atlas of the Indian Ocean published in 1975 by the Academy of Sciences and Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography of the USSR.
INTERNATIONAL DECADE OF OCEAN EXPLORATION (1971-1980)
Origin—The International Decade of Ocean Exploration was carried out during the 10-year period, 1971 to 1980. Unlike IGY and IIOE, which were initiated by the academic scientific community, IDOE was the brainchild of the National Council of Marine Resources and Engineering. The council was established by Congress in the Marine Sciences Act of 1966.
The act instructed the President, through the council, to advance marine initiatives that would contribute to cooperation with other nations and international organizations. The President (Lyndon B. Johnson) stressed the need for cooperation of all maritime nations. According to Ed Wenk (1980), who served as Executive Secretary of the Council during the Johnson and Nixon administrations, Johnson's philosophy went well beyond an abstraction of scientific interchange. It was driven by a quest for a stable, lasting peace, despite the paradox of a growing commitment to Vietnam.
Mindful of the international emphasis of the Marine Sciences Act and the President's pronouncements, the Marine Council under the leadership of Vice-President Humphrey generated, among other marine policy initiatives, an initiative in international marine activities. This was approved in December 1966. This initiative evolved into the IDOE, and in December 1967 the Vice-President recommended it to the President "arguing the case in terms of food for expanding world population, maritime threats to world