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FIGURE 1 Simplified National Science Foundation organizational chart for the period 1969-1975 (see Appendix F for complete chart).

Furthermore, proposals from the agency scientists, most of whom were unfamiliar with the procedures and requirements for submitting research proposals to NSF, did not receive very good reviews from the traditional mail reviews utilized by NSF. Proposals that might have been suitable for gaining support within the agencies were not favorably received by the academic reviewers.

The final obstacle to agency participation in IDOE lay in the fact that even when the agency mission coincided with a particular IDOE project, there remained insurmountable problems resulting from differences in management style, funding procedures, and long-range research objectives. These barriers tended to discourage any significant participation by other federal agencies in the IDOE.

As a result, after the first year of the program, during which half of the IDOE funds were essentially passed through to those agencies having marine responsibilities, agency participation in the program was minimal. The one exception was the North Pacific Experiment (NORPAX), which addressed problems of direct interest to the Office of Naval Research's (ONR' s) oceanographic research mission. NORPAX became a jointly funded program in which ONR and IDOE each supported research carried out by the academic oceanographic institutions. The research was closely coordinated by the program managers from each agency.

International Participation—Another area in which the IDOE was unable to carry out the concepts envisaged by both the Marine Council and the National Academy of Sciences was the extent of international cooperation. While the U.S. marine science community was quickly able to design large research projects responsive to purpose of more effective utilization of the ocean and its resources, other maritime nations were not able to organize themselves quickly enough for meaningful participation.

In each year of the program, the U.S. IDOE submitted its plans and programs to the IOC and received the endorsement of member states. But procedures followed by scientists of the member countries in obtaining financial support from their own governments for the participation were ago



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