The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000
and with biomarkers for some taxa. Archaeology through analysis of Indian middens has contributed to dissection of the sea otter-urchin-kelp interaction in the Aleutian Island chain (Estes et al., 1998). Where could additional effort by ocean ecologists produce the greatest extension and resolution back in time? The successes noted under functional ecology give reason to expect dramatic progress soon in understanding form and function in marine microfossils through understanding of form and function in today's fossilizable organisms. As the costs and benefits of simple shapes yield to analysis (e.g., Dusenbery 1998b), costs and benefits of more complex morphologies seem less daunting to study. Body form, spination, and mechanical properties of phytoplankton and protist individuals and chains certainly contain environmental information to be read. Continued development of "biomarker" compounds also certainly will be repaid. More conjecturally, establishing the extent to which buried bacterial communities reflect the conditions above and on the seafloor at some previous time (i.e., while the surface mixed layer of sediments was in contact with the overlying water) versus their environmental conditions at present may allow extraction of other paleoenvironmental information. At issue is the length of time that bacteria can survive in inactive state and be interrogated by molecular means in this biochemically messy medium.
I thank John Cullen and Dick Barber for constructive criticism of earlier drafts of this paper and Thomas Kiørboe and David Karl for sharing their unpublished manuscripts.
Arrigo. K.A., D.H. Robinson, D.L Worthen, R.B. Dunbar, G.R. DiTullio, M. VanWoert, and M.P. Lizotte. 1999. Phytoplankton community structure and drawdown of nutrients and CO2 in the Southern Ocean. Science 283:365-367.
Bakun, A. 1997. Radical interdecadal stock variability and the triad concept: A window of opportunity for fishery management science. Pp. 1-18 in T.J. Pitcher, P.J.B. Hart, and D. Pauly (eds.), Reinventing Fisheries Management. Chapman and Hall, London.
Berg, H.C. 1993. Random Walks in Biology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Berlow, E.L. 1999. Strong effects of weak interactions in ecological communities. Nature 398:330-334.
Blackburn, N., T. Fenchel, and J. Mitchell. 1998. Microscale nutrient patches in planktonic habitats shown by chemotactic bacteria. Science 282:2254-2256.
Box, G.E.P., G.M. Jenkins. and G.C. Reinsel. 1994. Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Bundy, M.H., T.F. Gross, H.A. Vanderploeg, and J.R. Strickler. 1998. Perception of inert particles by calanoid copepods: Behavioral observations and a numerical model. J. Plankton Res. 20:2129-2152.
Chin, W.C., M.V. Orellana, and P. Verdugo. 1998. Spontaneous assembly of marine dissolved organic matter into polymer gels. Nature 391:568-572.
Dade, W.B., P.A. Jumars, and D.L. Penry. 1990. Supply-side optimization: Maximizing absorptive rates. Pp. 531-556 in R.N. Hughes (ed.), Behavioural Mechanisms of Food Selection. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Dusenbery, D.B. 1998a. Minimum size limit for useful locomotion by free-swimming microbes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10949-10954.
Dusenbery, D.B. 1998b. Fitness landscapes for effects of shape on chemotaxis and other behaviors of bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 180:5978-5983.
Dusenbery, D.B. 1998c. Spatial sensing of stimulus gradients can be superior to temporal sensing for free-swimming bacteria. Biophysical J. 74:2272-2277.
Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams, and D.F. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282:473-476.
Falkowski, P.G. 1997. Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological sequestration of CO2 in the ocean. Nature 387:272-275.
Hessler, R.R., and P.A. Jumars. 1974. Abyssal community analysis from replicate box cores in the central North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res . 21:185-209.
Karl, D.M. In press. A sea of change: Biogeochemical variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Ecosystems.
Karl, D.M., J.R. Christian, J.E. Dore, D.V. Hebel, R.M. Letelier, L.M. Tupas, and C.D. Winn. 1996. Seasonal and interannual variability in primary production and particle flux at Station ALOHA. Deep-Sea Res. 43:539-568.
Karl, D.M., R.M. Letelier, D.V. Hebel, L. Tupas, J.E. Dore, J.R. Christian, and C.D. Winn. 1995. Ecosystem changes in the North Pacific subtropical gyre attributed to the 1991-92 El Niño. Nature 373:230-234.
Kiørboe, T., and A.W. Visser. 1999. Predator and prey perception in cope-pods due to hydromechanical signals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 179:81-95.
Laws, E.A., L.W. Haas, P.K. Bienfang, R.W. Eppley, W.G. Harrison, D.M. Karl, and J. Marra. 1984. High phytoplankton growth and production rates in oligotrophic Hawaiian coastal waters. Limnol. Oceanogr. 29:1161-1169.
Luchsinger, R.H., B. Bergersen, and J.G. Mitchell. In review. Bacterial swimming strategies and turbulence. Biophysical Journal.
Margalef, R. 1978. Life-forms of phytoplankton as survival alternatives in an unstable environment. Oceanologica Acta1:4923-509.
McCann, K, A. Hastings, and G.R. Huxel. 1998. Weak trophic interactions and the balance of nature. Nature 395:794-798.
McCave, I.N. 1975. Vertical flux of particles in the ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 22:491-502.
McGillicuddy, D.J., and A.R. Robinson. 1997. Eddy-induced nutrient supply and new production in the Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 44:1427-1450.
McGowan, J.A., and P.W. Walker. 1985. Dominance and diversity maintenance in an oceanic ecosystem. Ecol. Monogr. 53:103-118.
Mills, E.L. 1995. From marine ecology to biological oceanography. Helgoländer Meeresunters. 49:29-44.
Paine, R.T. 1980. Food webs, linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure. J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685.
Paine, R.T. 1992. Food-web analysis through field measurement of per capita interaction strength. Nature 355:73-75.
Perry, M.J. 1972. Alkaline phosphatase activity in subtropical central North Pacific waters using a sensitive fluorometric method Mar. Biol . 15:113-119.
Perry, M.J. 1976. Phosphate utilization by an oceanic diatom in phosphorus-limited chemostat culture and in the oligotrophic waters of the central North Pacific. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21:88-107.
Smith, D.C., M. Simon, A.L. Alldredge, and F. Azam. 1992. Intense hy-drolytic activity on marine aggregates and implications for rapid particle dissolution. Nature 359:139-142.
Venrick, E.L., J.A. McGowan, D.R. Cayan, and T.L. Hayward. 1987. Climate and chlorophyll a: Long-term trends in the central North Pacific Ocean. Science 238:70-72.