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Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 204

Fleming, Richard, 23, 25, 45

France, 70-71, 81

Francheteau, Jean, 78-82

Frosch, Robert (Bob), 111, 216

French-American Mid-Ocean Undersea Study (FAMOUS), 66, 70-75, 78, 80, 81, 82, 146, 147

Fuglister, Fritz, 3, 45

Funding, 38, 63, 215

Atomic Energy Commission, 27, 30, 38, 196

Cold War, 12, 93, 94

cost-effectiveness, 7, 8, 131, 181-182

IDOE, 144-146, 147

Mansfield Amendment, 3, 5, 8, 101

NOAA, 34, 197

NSF, 3-8, 88, 89-90, 92, 93-95, 97, 99, 101, 108, 110, 111, 196, 204, 246-247

biological oceanography, 3, 4, 5, 12, 246

chemical oceanography, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31-34 (passim), 37, 38, 153 , 154, 246

education, 196-197, 246

geology and geophysics, 53, 56, 59, 61-62, 172, 173, 246

large-scale programs, 7-8, 141, 142, 143, 144-147, 150, 193

ocean drilling, 117, 119-120, 121, 122, 123, 127

physical oceanography, 44, 48, 165-166, 246

small-scale programs, 137-140

technological development, 131, 132, 193, 246

ONR, 3-5, 10, 25, 30, 34, 38, 53, 62, 108, 111, 204

Fye, Paul, 65, 66, 68, 95, 110, 111, 112, 204

G

Gaffney, Paul, 210-211

Genetics, see Biotechnology

Geochemical cycles, 24, 26, 27, 28-31, 36, 38, 131, 144, 173, 175, 176, 185

see also Biogeochemical cycles

Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS), 7, 29-30, 33, 39, 110, 144, 146, 147, 150, 153-157, 158, 159, 160

Atlantic Ocean, 154-155

carbon dioxide studies, 153-157

Indian Ocean, 156-157

Geological Data Center, 55-56

Geological Survey, 55, 68, 119, 195

Geology and geophysics, see Marine geology and geophysics

GI Bill, 196

Ginsberg, Robert (Bob), 53, 87, 88

Global Atmospheric Research Program, 110

Global Change Research Program, 149-151

Global Climate Observing System, 150

Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics program (GLOBEC), 11, 19

Global Ocean Flux Study, 159-160

Global Ocean Observing System, 150

Glomar Challenger, 101, 119-120

Glomar Explorer, 105

Goldberg, Edward (Ed), 23, 25-34 (passim), 38

Green, Edward (Ed), 17, 38

Greenhouse gases, 26-27, 28-29, 131, 153-157, 170-171, 193

see also Carbon dioxide

Gulf Stream, 3, 73, 128

H

Health sciences, 215

see also Environmental protection

Heirtzler, James (Jim), 57, 64, 71, 72, 78, 120

Helix, 94

Hess, Harry, 3, 57, 117, 118

Hessler, Robert, 14, 15, 17, 70

Hollister, Charles (Charlie), 56, 64, 197

Hutchinson, G. Evelyn, 11, 25, 28

Hydrography, 25, 45, 152, 159

Hydrothermal vents, see Vents

I

Indian Ocean, 15, 89, 93, 94, 95, 110, 125, 141, 142-143, 152-153

GEOSECS, 156-157

In situ observations and experiments, 20

deep-ocean mooring, 46, 48, 131

see also Deep sea drilling;

Facilities for research;

Ships

Institutional factors, 3-8, 11, 63, 87-133, 192-194, 201-206

chemical oceanography, 23

marine geology and geophysics, 54-56

peer review, 6, 8, 102, 132, 147-148, 166

symposium program, 220, 222

see also Education and training;

Interdisciplinary research;

Large-scale programs;

Small-scale programs;

specific institutions

Instrumentation, see Facilities for research;

Technological developments

Interagency Committee on Oceanography, 88, 89, 90, 93, 98

Interdisciplinary research, 3, 5, 7, 52, 72, 96, 97, 194, 214

biological oceanography, 17, 19

chemical oceanography, 171

large-scale programs, 137

physical oceanography, 166, 175

RIDGE, 63

technological development and facilities, 130

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, 144, 154

Internal waves, 46, 48

The International Aspects of Oceanography, 203, 206

International Council for Science, 154

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 24

International Council of Scientific Unions, 71, 89, 141, 142, 159

see also International Geophysical Year

International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE), 3, 4-5, 7-8, 72, 91, 95, 102-103, 104, 109, 115, 141, 143-148, 149, 150

chemical oceanography, 29, 33, 34, 39, 144, 150, 153, 158

funding, 144-146, 147

marine geology and geophysics, 62, 144, 146, 147

marine pollution, 33, 34, 150

National Academy of Sciences, 144, 146, 148

ONR, 146

technological developments, 129, 131

International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), 3, 4-5, 25, 57, 62, 71 , 88, 91, 93, 94, 97-98, 105-106, 108, 141-142, 152

National Academy of Sciences, 141-142

International Indian Ocean Expedition, 15, 89, 93, 94, 110, 141, 142-143, 152-153

International Oceanographic Congress, 27

International Oceanographic Foundation, 90

International Program for Ocean Drilling, 121-122

Internet, 23, 115, 169, 182

Iron Hypothesis, 16-17, 37-38

Iselin, Columbus, 6, 53, 55, 108, 114, 138

J

Jason, 211

Jenkins, William (Bill), 34, 38, 157, 169

Jennings, Feenan, 7, 33, 90, 91, 102, 141-148, 203, 212

Johrde, Mary, 5, 88, 90, 91, 93-95, 111, 112, 115, 129

JOIDES Resolution, 207

Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, 19, 37, 131, 138, 158-160, 186

Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc., 105, 122, 126, 139, 204-205

Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES), 7, 100-101, 104-105, 110, 119-122, 127, 139, 205, 207

Jumars, Peter (Pete), 12, 14, 159, 184-191

K

Keeling, Charles David (Dave), 28, 157

Ketchum, Bostwick (Buck), 24, 28, 33, 34

Kilgore-Magnuson Bill, 196

Knauss, John, 3-8, 44, 49, 109, 212, 216

Knorr, 75

L

Lakes, 167

Lambert, Richard (Dick), 44, 93, 149-151

Lamont-Doherty Geological Laboratory of Columbia University, 6, 7, 53, 54-55, 108, 120, 142, 143, 147, 203

Large-scale programs, 64. 96, 137, 141-161

Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS), 7, 29-30, 33, 39, 110, 144, 146, 147, 150, 153-157, 158, 159, 160



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