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50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000
tween the Atmosphere and Ocean and the Question of an Increase of Atmospheric CO2 During Past Decades."
Roger Revelle had a significant influence on the future of chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry research, and ocean and environmental sciences in general, so much so that it is difficult to capture in words. The closest to an accurate description is that of MacLeisch (1982-1983) who identifies Roger Revelle by the apt designation "Senior Senator of Science." Roger Revelle received the National Medal of Science of the United States in 1990.
Tracers, Ocean Circulation and Mixing, and Global Biogeochemical Cycles
A very influential paper in chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry presented at the International Oceanographic Congress, and subsequently published in 1961, was by Broecker, Gerard, Ewing, and Heezen ( 1961) "Geochemistry and Physics of Ocean Circulation." This paper was similar to the paper published in 1960 by the same authors in the peer-reviewed journal literature (Broecker et al., 1960) and was largely the outcome of the Ph.D. thesis research of Wallace S. "Wally" Broecker, completed in 1957 at Columbia University, "Application of Radiocarbon to Oceanography and Climate Chronology" (Broecker, 1957)—the launch of a truly illustrious career by arguably one of the most influential, scholarly geoscientists of his times. Wally Broecker received the National Medal of Science of the United States in 1996 and the Blue Planet Award for his many and diverse scientific contributions.
Three additional points are worthy of mention about this specific contribution by Broecker et al. (1961). First, there is evidence of the success of an earlier NSF investment in the establishment of radiocarbon measurement capability through grants to Kulp in 1954 and 1955 (Table 1). Second, NSF continued to invest in the early career development of Wally Broecker as evidenced by its grant to him in 1958 (Table 1). Third, this was the ocean science and geoscience communities' introduction to the powerful reasoning and explanatory teaching style of Wally Broecker. Readers are invited to compare the reasoning and analogies in Broecker et al. (1961) to that found in the later influential texts Chemical Oceanography (Broecker, 1974), Tracers in the Sea (Broecker and Peng, 1982), and How to Build a Habitable Planet (Broecker, 1985).
Karl K. Turekian was also a graduate student of Professor Kulp at Columbia University, at the same time as Wally Broecker, and they collaborated on some projects (e.g., Broecker et al., 1958). Karl has been influential in many ways in his career. McElway (1983) wrote a profile of Karl Turekian, "Academic Gladiator," in which he captured the Karl Turekian I know: wide-ranging intellect, superb teacher, scrappy debater, eclectic in his significant contributions to Earth sciences—including chemical oceanography and marine geochemistry—through the use of geochemical measurements of various types. Karl' s earlier publications indicated the breadth and depth of contributions to come (e.g., Turekian, 1955, 1957, 1958; Turekian and Kulp, 1956). Karl's book Oceans (Turekian, 1968) provided many of the undergraduates and beginning graduate students of my generation with a concise, readable, important introduction to marine sciences. Karl's influence can be found in some of the most important areas of chemical oceanography from the 1950s to the present as well as in much research on global biogeochemical cycles.
Physical Chemistry of Seawater and Lars Gunnar Sillen
Other aspects of the chemistry of the oceans were receiving increased attention. In 1959, Professors Gustaf Arrenhius and Edward D. Goldberg invited Professor Lars Gunnar Sillen, one of the world's foremost inorganic chemists of the time, to give a lecture at the International Oceanographic Congress in New York, between August 31 and September 12. His paper, (another very influential paper from this decade) "The Physical Chemistry of Seawater" (Sillen, 1961) was published in the proceedings of the Congress edited by Dr. Mary Sears. Goldberg (1974) quotes from Sillen and I repeat Goldberg's quote here:
. . . it may be worthwhile to try to find out what the true equilibrium would be like, and that one might learn from a comparison with the real system. We shall often find that sufficient data are lacking to make the discussion very precise. Neither the laboratory data on chemical equilibria (needed for the model) nor the geochemical data (for the real system) are always as accurate as one might wish. Still, it may be worth while to try this approach. (p. ix)
The process described by Sillen of attempting to define equilibrium or steady-state conditions from fundamental chemical principles and laboratory experiments and then comparing the resulting chemical distributions, including detailed chemical speciation, with actual measured distributions in the oceans, is at the heart of much chemical oceanography and marine chemistry research of the past three decades and at present.
Nuclear Weapons Lest Fallout: Environmental Quality and Tracers in the Sea
The initiation of nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific Ocean in the 1950s by the United States, and elsewhere by other members of the "nuclear weapons club," was accompanied by concern for the fate and effects of several radioactive elements and led to an intensification of research concerned with "biogeochemical" cycling in the oceans (NAS, 1957). Much funding was provided from the Atomic Energy Commission to understand many aspects of oceanic processes, including chemical processes. There were major