The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950—2000
FIGURE 3 Cartoon of oceanic biogeochemical cycles ''The Big Beaker." Cartoon courtesy of Professor Conrad Neumann, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
A pioneering and thoughtful paper by Oliver C. Zafiriou (1977) "previewed" the field of marine photochemistry, stimulating a fresh look at the role of photochemical reactions in the ocean. Since that time, with the efforts of Zafiriou, Zika, and others, our knowledge of marine photo-chemistry has expanded rapidly (Zika, 1987). Marine organic geochemistry moved from descriptive, qualitative studies to become more quantitative and more oceanic process oriented (e.g., see Gagosian, 1983; Farrington, 1987; Lee and Wakeham, 1989; and the review volume edited by Farrington, 1992).
The internal fluxes of materials on particulate matter in the ocean were the subject of significant efforts in chemical oceanography-marine geochemistry. Honjo Spencer, and Brewer undertook an effort using large sediment traps to assess the vertical fluxes of large particles in the oceans in their PARFLUX effort (Honjo, 1978; Spencer et al., 1978; Brewer et al., 1980). Similar efforts were undertaken simultaneously by several other investigators (e.g., Gardner, 1977; Staresinic et al., 1978; Knauer et al., 1979; and reviews by Brewer and Glover, 1987).
A very important small research group effort by Werner