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FIGURE 3 Cartoon of oceanic biogeochemical cycles ''The Big Beaker." Cartoon courtesy of Professor Conrad Neumann, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

A pioneering and thoughtful paper by Oliver C. Zafiriou (1977) "previewed" the field of marine photochemistry, stimulating a fresh look at the role of photochemical reactions in the ocean. Since that time, with the efforts of Zafiriou, Zika, and others, our knowledge of marine photo-chemistry has expanded rapidly (Zika, 1987). Marine organic geochemistry moved from descriptive, qualitative studies to become more quantitative and more oceanic process oriented (e.g., see Gagosian, 1983; Farrington, 1987; Lee and Wakeham, 1989; and the review volume edited by Farrington, 1992).

The internal fluxes of materials on particulate matter in the ocean were the subject of significant efforts in chemical oceanography-marine geochemistry. Honjo Spencer, and Brewer undertook an effort using large sediment traps to assess the vertical fluxes of large particles in the oceans in their PARFLUX effort (Honjo, 1978; Spencer et al., 1978; Brewer et al., 1980). Similar efforts were undertaken simultaneously by several other investigators (e.g., Gardner, 1977; Staresinic et al., 1978; Knauer et al., 1979; and reviews by Brewer and Glover, 1987).

A very important small research group effort by Werner



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