References

ACHPPM (U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine). 1999. Short-Term Chemical Exposure Guidelines for Deployed Military Personnel. TG230A. Draft. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, MD. (March).


Barnthouse, L., J. Fava, K. Humphreys, R. Hunt, L. Laibson, S. Noesen, J. Owens, J. Todd, B. Vigon, K. Weitz, and J. Young. 1997. Life-Cycle Impact Assessment: The State of the Art, 2nd Ed. Pensacola, FL.: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).


Clemen, R. 1990. Making Hard Decisions. New York, NY: PWT, Kent.

Curran, M.A. 1996. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. New York: McGraw Hill.


DeRoos R.L., P.N. Anderson, N.J. Berberich, B. Maugans, G.S. Omenn, P.G. Rentos. 1988. Observations on work force and training needs for assessing environmental health risks. Public Health Rep. 103(4):348–354.

DODD (Department of Defense Directive). 1997. Joint Medical Surveillance. Directive 6490.2. Department of Defense. (August 30, 1997.)


Environmental Defense Fund. 1997. Toxic Ignorance: The Continuing Absence of Basic Health Testing for Top-Selling Chemicals in the United States. New York: Environmental Defense Fund.

EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. The Risk Assessment Guidelines of 1986. EPA/600/8–87/045. Washington, D.C.: Office of Health and Environmental Assessment.

EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA/600/P-92/003C. http://www.epa.gov/ORD/WebPubs/carcinogen.


GAO (United States General Accounting Office). 1998. Chemical Weapons: DOD Does Not Have a Strategy to Address Low-Level Exposures. GAO/NSIAD-98–228. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office.


IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1987. Pp. 17–34. In: Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1–42., Supplement 7. Lyon, France: IARC.



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--> References ACHPPM (U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine). 1999. Short-Term Chemical Exposure Guidelines for Deployed Military Personnel. TG230A. Draft. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood, MD. (March). Barnthouse, L., J. Fava, K. Humphreys, R. Hunt, L. Laibson, S. Noesen, J. Owens, J. Todd, B. Vigon, K. Weitz, and J. Young. 1997. Life-Cycle Impact Assessment: The State of the Art, 2nd Ed. Pensacola, FL.: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). Clemen, R. 1990. Making Hard Decisions. New York, NY: PWT, Kent. Curran, M.A. 1996. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. New York: McGraw Hill. DeRoos R.L., P.N. Anderson, N.J. Berberich, B. Maugans, G.S. Omenn, P.G. Rentos. 1988. Observations on work force and training needs for assessing environmental health risks. Public Health Rep. 103(4):348–354. DODD (Department of Defense Directive). 1997. Joint Medical Surveillance. Directive 6490.2. Department of Defense. (August 30, 1997.) Environmental Defense Fund. 1997. Toxic Ignorance: The Continuing Absence of Basic Health Testing for Top-Selling Chemicals in the United States. New York: Environmental Defense Fund. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. The Risk Assessment Guidelines of 1986. EPA/600/8–87/045. Washington, D.C.: Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA/600/P-92/003C. http://www.epa.gov/ORD/WebPubs/carcinogen. GAO (United States General Accounting Office). 1998. Chemical Weapons: DOD Does Not Have a Strategy to Address Low-Level Exposures. GAO/NSIAD-98–228. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1987. Pp. 17–34. In: Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1–42., Supplement 7. Lyon, France: IARC.

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--> IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1999. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Medical Surveillance, Record Keeping, and Risk Reduction. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. JSC (Joint Chiefs of Staff). 1998. Memorandum: Deployment Health Surveillance and Readiness. MCM-251–98. Office of the Chairman, Washington, D.C. Dated 4 December 1998. Kaplan, S. and B.J. Garrick. 1981. On the quantitative definition of risk. Risk Analysis 1(1):11–27. Lippmann, M. 1999. Approaches for the Collection and Use of Personal-Exposure and Human Biological-Marker Information for Assessing Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces in Hostile Environments. In: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28–29, 1999. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Martin, E. 1999. Characteristics of the Future Battlefield and Deployment. In: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28-29, 1999 . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Morgan, M.G. and M. Henrion 1990. Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk and Policy Analysis. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 1998. The Ecology of Industry: Sectors and Linkages. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NCEH (National Center for Environmental Health). 1996. Environmental Public Health Surveillance Workshops. Online. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/programs/ephs/wkshop. NRC (National Research Council). 1972. The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. NRC (National Research Council). 1974. The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. NRC (National Research Council). 1980. The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: 1980. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1986. Criteria and Methods for Preparing Emergency Exposure Guidance Level (EEGL), Short-Term Public Emergency Guidance Level (SPEGL), and Continuous Guidance Level (CEGL) Documents. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1988. Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: HEIR V. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1993a. Issues in Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1993b. Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Standing Operating Procedures of the National Advisory Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (Draft). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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--> NRC (National Research Council). 1999a. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Technology and Methods for Detection and Tracking of Exposures to a Subset of Harmful Agents. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1999b. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces: Physical Protection and Decontamination . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1999c. Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28–29, 1999. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1999d. Health Effects of Exposure to Radon: BEIR VI. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NSTC (National Science and Technology Council). 1998. A National Obligation Planning for Health Preparedness for and Readjustment of the Military, Veterans, and Their Families after Future Deployments. Presidential Review Directive 5 Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington D.C. Olin, S., W. Farland, C. Park, L. Rhomberg, R. Scheuplein, T. Start, and J. Wilson, eds. 1995. Low-Dose Extrapolation of Cancer Risks: Issues and Perspectives. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press. PCCRARM (Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management). 1997a. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Washington, D.C. PCCRARM (Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management). 1997b. Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making. Washington, D.C. Pojasek, R.B. 1998. P2 assessments: What are they good for? Pollution Prevention Review, 8(4):101–109. Rhomberg, L.R. 1995. ''What Constitutes 'Dose'? (Definitions)" Pp. 185–198, in: Low-Dose Extrapolation of Cancer Risks: Issues and Perspectives. S. Olin, W. Farland, C. Park, L. Rhomberg, R. Scheuplein, T. Starr, and J. Wilson, eds. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press. Rhomberg, L.R. 1997. A survey of methods for chemical health risk assessment among federal regulatory agencies. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 3(6):1029–1196. Rodricks, J. 1999. The Nature of Risk Assessment and Its Application to Deployed U.S. Forces. In: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28–29, 1999. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Rose, J. 1999. Future Health Assessment and Risk Management Integration for Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents for Deployed Forces. In: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28–29, 1999. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Rozman, K. 1999. Approaches for Using Toxicokinetic Information in Assessing Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. In: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28–29, 1999. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Thacker, S.B., D.F. Stroup, P.G. Parrish and H.A. Anderson. 1996. Surveillance in environmental public health: issues, systems, and sources. Am J Public Health. 86(5):633–8. U.S. Army. 1998. Risk Management. Field Manual FM-100–14. Dept. of the Army, Washington, D.C. (April 23, 1998). von Winterfeldt, D. and W. Edwards. 1986. Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. Weeks, J.L. 1991. Occupational health and safety regulation in the coal mining industry: public health at the workplace. Annu Rev Public Health 12:195–207.

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--> Yang, R. 1999. Health Risks and Preventive Research Strategy for Deployed U.S. Forces from Toxicologic Interactions Among Potentially Harmful Agents. In: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces Workshop Proceedings: Assessing Health Risks to Deployed U.S. Forces. January 28–29, 1999. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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