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Bigger, J.T., and J.P. Schwartz. 1994. Markers of vagal activity and the prediction of cardiac death after myocardial infarction. In: Vagal Control of the Heart: Experimental Basis and Clinical Implications, edited by M.N. Levy and P.J. Schwartz. Armonk, N.Y.: Futura.

Burnett, R.T., S. Cakmak, J.R. Brook, and D. Krewski. 1997. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives 105: 614-620.

Burnett, R.T., S. Cakmak, and J.R. Brook. 1998. The effect of the urban ambient air pollution mix on daily mortality rates in 11 Canadian cities. Canadian Journal of Public Health 89: 152-156.


Chapman, R.S., W.P. Watkinson, K.L. Dreher, and D.L. Costa. 1997. Ambient particulate matter and respiratory and cardiovascular illness in adults: particle-borne transition metals and the heart-lung axis. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 4: 331-338.

Clarke, R.W., P.J. Catalano, P. Koutrakis, G.G. Krishna Murthy, C. Sioutas, J. Paulauskis, S. Ferguson, and J.J. Godleski. 1999. Urban air particulate inhalation alters pulmonary function and induces pulmonary inflammation in a rodent model of chronic bronchitis. Inhalation Toxicology 11: 637-656.


Dab, W., S. Medina, P. Quenel, Y. Le Moullec, A. Le Tertre, B. Thelot, C. Moteil, P. Lameloise, P. Pirard, I. Momas, R. Ferry, and B. Festy. 1996. Short-term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 50 (suppl. 1): S42-S46.

Delfino, R.J., A.M. Murphy-Multon, R.T. Burnett, J.R. Brook, and M.R. Becklade. 1997. Effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal, Quebec. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155: 568-576.

Delfino, R.J., A.M. Murphy-Multon, and M.R. Becklade. 1998. Emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses among the elderly in Montreal: association with low level ozone exposure. Environmental Research 76: 67-77.

Dockery, D.W., C.A. Pope, III, X. Xu, J.D. Spengler, J.H. Ware, M.E. Fay, B.G. Ferris, Jr., and F.E. Speizer. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine 329: 1753-1759.

Dormans, J.A., P.A. Steerenberg, J.H.E. Arts, L. van Bree, L., A. de Klerk, A.P.J. Verlaan, J.P. Bruijntjes, P. Beekhof, D. van Soolingen, and H. van Loveren. 1999. Pathological and immunological effects of respirable coal fly ash in male Wistar rats. Inhalation Toxicology 11: 51-69.

Dougherty, C., and R. Burr. 1992. Comparison of heart rate variability in survivors and nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest. American Journal of Cardiology 70: 441-448.

Dreher, K.L., R.H. Jaskot, J.R. Lehmann, J.H. Richards, and J. K. McGee. 1997. Soluble transition metals mediate residual oil fly ash induced acute lung injury. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 50: 285-305.


Eldred, R.A. 1997. Comparison of selenium and sulfur at remote sites throughout the United States. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 47: 204-211.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter. EPA/600/P-95/001 aF-cF.3v. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Center for Environmental Assessment-RTP Office. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service.

EPA. 1997. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1996. EPA 454/R-97-011. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards.

EPA. 1998a. National Air Quality and Emission Trends Report, 1997. EPA 454/R-98-016. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

EPA. 1998b. Atmospheric Observations: Helping Build the Scientific Basis for Decisions Related to Airborne Particulate Matter. Cambridge, Mass.: Health Effects Institute.

EPA. 1998c. Draft Supersites Conceptual Plan. November 9, 1998. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

EPA. 1999. EPA's Homepage. http://www.epa.gov/airsweb/aw.htm.

Ewing, D., D. Borsey, F. Bellavere, and B. Clarke. 1981. Cardiac



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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates References Abbey, D.E., N. Nishino, W.F. McDonnell, R.J. Burchette, S.F. Knutsen, W.L. Beeson, and J.X. Yang. 1999. Long-term inhalable particles and other air pollutants related to mortality in nonsmokers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159: 373-382. Bigger, J.T., and J.P. Schwartz. 1994. Markers of vagal activity and the prediction of cardiac death after myocardial infarction. In: Vagal Control of the Heart: Experimental Basis and Clinical Implications, edited by M.N. Levy and P.J. Schwartz. Armonk, N.Y.: Futura. Burnett, R.T., S. Cakmak, J.R. Brook, and D. Krewski. 1997. The role of particulate size and chemistry in the association between summertime ambient air pollution and hospitalization for cardiorespiratory diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives 105: 614-620. Burnett, R.T., S. Cakmak, and J.R. Brook. 1998. The effect of the urban ambient air pollution mix on daily mortality rates in 11 Canadian cities. Canadian Journal of Public Health 89: 152-156. Chapman, R.S., W.P. Watkinson, K.L. Dreher, and D.L. Costa. 1997. Ambient particulate matter and respiratory and cardiovascular illness in adults: particle-borne transition metals and the heart-lung axis. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 4: 331-338. Clarke, R.W., P.J. Catalano, P. Koutrakis, G.G. Krishna Murthy, C. Sioutas, J. Paulauskis, S. Ferguson, and J.J. Godleski. 1999. Urban air particulate inhalation alters pulmonary function and induces pulmonary inflammation in a rodent model of chronic bronchitis. Inhalation Toxicology 11: 637-656. Dab, W., S. Medina, P. Quenel, Y. Le Moullec, A. Le Tertre, B. Thelot, C. Moteil, P. Lameloise, P. Pirard, I. Momas, R. Ferry, and B. Festy. 1996. Short-term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 50 (suppl. 1): S42-S46. Delfino, R.J., A.M. Murphy-Multon, R.T. Burnett, J.R. Brook, and M.R. Becklade. 1997. Effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses in Montreal, Quebec. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155: 568-576. Delfino, R.J., A.M. Murphy-Multon, and M.R. Becklade. 1998. Emergency room visits for respiratory illnesses among the elderly in Montreal: association with low level ozone exposure. Environmental Research 76: 67-77. Dockery, D.W., C.A. Pope, III, X. Xu, J.D. Spengler, J.H. Ware, M.E. Fay, B.G. Ferris, Jr., and F.E. Speizer. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine 329: 1753-1759. Dormans, J.A., P.A. Steerenberg, J.H.E. Arts, L. van Bree, L., A. de Klerk, A.P.J. Verlaan, J.P. Bruijntjes, P. Beekhof, D. van Soolingen, and H. van Loveren. 1999. Pathological and immunological effects of respirable coal fly ash in male Wistar rats. Inhalation Toxicology 11: 51-69. Dougherty, C., and R. Burr. 1992. Comparison of heart rate variability in survivors and nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest. American Journal of Cardiology 70: 441-448. Dreher, K.L., R.H. Jaskot, J.R. Lehmann, J.H. Richards, and J. K. McGee. 1997. Soluble transition metals mediate residual oil fly ash induced acute lung injury. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 50: 285-305. Eldred, R.A. 1997. Comparison of selenium and sulfur at remote sites throughout the United States. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 47: 204-211. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1996. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter. EPA/600/P-95/001 aF-cF.3v. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Center for Environmental Assessment-RTP Office. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service. EPA. 1997. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends, 1900-1996. EPA 454/R-97-011. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. EPA. 1998a. National Air Quality and Emission Trends Report, 1997. EPA 454/R-98-016. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. EPA. 1998b. Atmospheric Observations: Helping Build the Scientific Basis for Decisions Related to Airborne Particulate Matter. Cambridge, Mass.: Health Effects Institute. EPA. 1998c. Draft Supersites Conceptual Plan. November 9, 1998. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. EPA. 1999. EPA's Homepage. http://www.epa.gov/airsweb/aw.htm. Ewing, D., D. Borsey, F. Bellavere, and B. Clarke. 1981. Cardiac

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