REVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY'S RESEARCH PLAN FOR FINE PARTICULATES

Committee to Review DOE's Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

Washington, D.C.



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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates REVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY'S RESEARCH PLAN FOR FINE PARTICULATES Committee to Review DOE's Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Washington, D.C.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DE-FG01-98EE35047 (Task #3) from the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06782-0 Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. HA-270 Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3344 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates COMMITTEE TO REVIEW DOE'S OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY'S RESEARCH PLAN FOR FINE PARTICULATES RICHARD S. MAGEE (chair), New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark JAN BEYEA, Consulting in the Public Interest, Lambertville, New Jersey JOHN J. GODLESKI, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts MANOJ K. GUHA, American Electric Power Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio GEORGE M. HIDY, University of Alabama, Birmingham RUDOLF B. HUSAR, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri FREDERICK W. LIPFERT, Environmental Consultant, Northport, New York JOHN LONGWELL, NAE1, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge SPYROS N. PANDIS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GEORGE T. WOLFF, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan RONALD WYZGA, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California Liaison from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems K. ANNE STREET, Alexandria, Virginia Project Staff, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems JAMES ZUCCHETTO, board director and study director RICHARD CAMPBELL, program officer SUSANNA E. CLARENDON, senior project assistant and financial associate 1   NAE = National Academy of Engineering

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ROBERT L. HIRSCH (chair), Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., Washington, D.C. RICHARD MESERVE (vice chair), Covington and Burling, Washington, D.C. RICHARD E. BALZHISER, NAE,1 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (retired), Menlo Park, California EVERETT H. BECKNER, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico E. GAIL DE PLANQUE, NAE, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM L. FISHER, NAE, University of Texas, Austin CHRISTOPHER FLAVIN, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM FULKERSON, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROY G. GORDON, NAS,2 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts EDWIN E. KINTNER, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Norwich, Vermont ROBERT W. SHAW, JR., Aretê Corporation, Center Harbor, New Hampshire K. ANNE STREET, Alexandria, Virginia JAMES SWEENEY, Stanford University, Stanford, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JACK WHITE, The Winslow Group, LLC, Fairfax, Virginia JOHN J. WISE, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Company (retired), Princeton, New Jersey Liaison from the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RUTH M. DAVIS, NAF, Pymatuning Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, California Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director RICHARD CAMPBELL, program officer SUSANNA CLARENDON, financial associate CRISTELLYN BANKS, project assistant 1   NAE = National Academy of Engineering 2   NAS = National Academy of Sciences

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank Thomas Feeley, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Federal Energy Technology Center, for his presentation on the DOE fine particulate research plan and program and for his ongoing efforts to respond to the committee's questions and requests for additional information. His responsiveness in supplying materials and clarifying information quickly enabled the committee to complete its task in a timely manner. The committee also wishes to thank the following people for their presentations: Thomas Grahame, DOE, on aspects of the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's fine particulate matter (PM2.5) research program; Robinson Khosah, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., on sampling and analysis; Richard Scheffe, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on EPA's ambient sampling and characterization; Susan Wierman, Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association, on the state and local perspective on PM2.5 information needs; Professor Cliff Davidson, Carnegie Mellon University, on the deposition of fine particulates; and Professor Anthony Wexler, University of Delaware, on secondary particulate formation. These presentations provided the committee with a broad perspective and foundation to conduct its review of DOE's research plan and program on fine particulates, which is a small part of a much larger national research initiative. The committee greatly appreciates the assistance provided by the National Research Council (NRC) staff members James Zucchetto, Richard Campbell, and Susanna Clarendon. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the follow individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Richard Balzhiser (retired), Electric Power Research Institute; Peter Coffey (retired), New York Power Pool; Paul Feldman, Environmental Elements Corporation; Joseph Helble, University of Connecticut; Philip K. Hopke, Clarkson University; Harold Schobert, Pennsylvania State University; Christian Seigneur, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.; and Ponisseril Somasundaran, Columbia University. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7     Legislative Background   7     Sources of Fine Particulate Matter   8     Research on Particulate Matter   9     Scope of This Study and Organization of the Report   10 2   BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY   12     Introduction   12     Health Effects   12     Regional Haze and Impaired Visibility   14     Characteristics of Ambient Particulate Matter   15     Monitoring of Ambient Particulate Matter   16     Characterization of Source Emissions   17     Relationship between Emissions and Concentrations of Ambient Particulate Matter   17     Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations and Personal Exposure   19     Effectiveness of Control Technologies   19 3   REVIEW OF THE DOE FINE PARTICULATE RESEARCH PROGRAM   21     Overall Strategy   21     Ambient PM2.5 Sampling and Analysis   22     Characterizing Emissions and Plume/Atmospheric Chemistry   27     Research and Development on Emission-Control Technologies   29     General Findings and Recommendations   31     Ambient PM2.5 Sampling and Analysis   33     Emissions Characterization and Plume/Atmospheric Chemistry   36     Research and Development on Emissions-Control Technology   37     REFERENCES   38

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Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy's Research Plan for Fine Particulates     APPENDICES     A   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   41 B   Projects in the U.S. Department of Energy's Fine Particulate Research Program   44 C   Committee Meetings and Other Activities   46     ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS   47